As biology unit notes Essay

Bullet Point Handouts Tests for closely-related species (Compare) DNA; Sequence of bases/nucleotides; DNA habitations; Separate DNA strands / break hydrogen bonds; Mix DNA/strands (of different species); Temperature/heat required to separate (hybrid) strands indicates relationship; Compare same/named protein; Sequence of amino acids [primary structure; Immunological evidence – not a mark Inject (seahorse) protein/serum into animal; (Obtain) antibodies/serum; Add protein/serum/plasma from other (seahorse) species; Amount of precipitate indicates relationship;

Treatment of Control group Given the placebo/dummy drug; (in context) Otherwise treated the (exact) same Usage of logarithmic scale Large range of results so logarithmic scale needed to plot them. Cellulose structure: function relationship Long straight chains of glucose molecules (with a 1-4 linkage) Held together by hydrogen bonds Can form microfossils Importance of courtship behavior Recognition of same species; Stimulates release of gametes; Recognition of mate/opposite gender; Indication of sexual maturity/fertility; Prediction of something using a graph Use line of best bit

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Extrapolate line and read off Hierarchy Groups within (larger) groups; with no overlap OR Smaller tax are grouped into one larger taxation where there’s no overlap between tax Classification rankings Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species Comparison of species Fossil records Homologous features Evolutionary history DNA Base sequence Ecological Niches Oxygen dissociation curve of hemoglobin with increase of respiration Increase in/more carbon dioxide; Curve moves to the right/depressed; Reduction of genetic diversity Reduced variety/number of different alleles/DNA / reduced gene pool (in new population); Founder effect; A few individuals from a population become isolated/form colonies (Genetic) bottlenecks; (Significant) fall in size of population Selective breeding / artificial selection; Using organisms with particular alleles/traits/phenotypes/characteristics; Pathways by which water moves in plants Simplistic pathway вЂ? water moves through the membrane and cytoplasm of cells Apoplectic pathway вЂ? water moves only through cell walls and intracellular spaces Features of gas exchange system Protocols Fish Insect Plant leaf Respiratory Medium Water Exchange Surface Plasma Membrane Gill lamellar Traceless Plasma membranes of spongy mesosphere cells Ventilation None Movements of mouth and gill create one-way flow Abdomen dilates/contracts, pressure decreases/ Increases Large surface area to volume ratio due to: Small volume of cells Large area of lamellar Large area of traceless Large surface area of cell surfaces and loose packing of cells Oxygen concentration maintained by: Use of oxygen in cell Ventilation/counter-current system in lamellar Ventilation/use of oxygen in body cells Use of oxygen by mesosphere cells Exchange surface thin due to: Thin plasma membrane

Thin layer of cells in walls of lamellar Thin walls of traceless Only cell wall and plasma membrane at exchange surface Roles of three main types of blood vessel Arteries вЂ? carry blood under high pressure away from heart to the organs – where they branch into the arterioles Veins вЂ? carry blood under low pressure away from the organs towards the heart Capillaries вЂ? carry blood close to every cell within an organ. Formation tot tissue diluted At (arteriole) end of capillary; Hydrostatic / blood pressure; Forces out soluble / small molecules; And water; Protein remains in blood / plasma; Molecules too large; More negative / lower water potential at (venue) end; Water drawn in by osmosis / diffuses in; Some fluid returned (to blood) by lymphatic system; Difference between viral DNA and other organisms Viral DNA is single-stranded/not double-stranded How a protein is synthesized from information in the DNA DNA splits / separates / hydrogen bonds break; (accept DNA unzips) to make morn; using RNA nucleotides; via RNA polymerase; complementary pairing / CEQ. Intros/non-coding DNA spliced out; (accept Junk DNA spliced out) Effect of mutation of a gene on the encoded protein and cell function Change in base of DNA; Change in code; Different amino acid (sequence) in protein; Different primary structure; (so) different secondary and tertiary structure (because primary structure determines the rest of the structure); If relating to enzymes: Tertiary structure is the active site of the enzyme; Mutation can cause protein/enzyme misfiling; Produces an incorrectly shaped active site becomes non-functional (both enzymes and proteins in general) Spread of antibiotic-resistant populations Vertical gene transmission; Bacteria divides via binary fission; Daughter cells receive plasmids;

Plasmids carry antibiotic-resistant genes; Increase in frequency of (resistant) allele/gene (in future generations); Horizontal gene transmission Bacteria pass plasmids to nearby bacteria through the conjugation / cytoplasm tube / bridge / pills can occur between different species How inhibitors can disrupt protein synthesis for the principle that inhibitor could be a competitive / non-competitive inhibitor; details about the mode of inhibition (competition with a substrate for the active site / changed shape of active site so substrate does not fit); translation (is affected); effect on the role of tarn (allow tarn does not bind / not attracted to ribosome); effect on the role of morn (allow morn does not bind to ribosome / tarn); peptide bonds do not form; amino acids do not Join; What is transcription and translation? Transcription: The copying of a gene which takes place in the nucleus Translation: Using the gene copy made during transcription to assemble a protein; this takes place on the ribosome. Factors to take into consideration in trials Age Gender Ethnicity If they were previously infected (health) Body mass Genetic factors / family history; Structure of a chloroplast

Adaptations in (different) Xerography relating to water shallow roots enable rapid uptake of rainfall; widespread/shallow roots allow collection of larger volume water/over a larger area/ rapid uptake of water; swollen stem for water storage; deep roots for accessing deep groundwater; small/ no leaves so little transpiration; How AT of mineral ions into xylem vessels in the roots results in water entering vessels and then being moved up the xylem tissue Water potential in xylem reduced (by entry of ions); Water potential gradient established between xylem and surrounding cells; Plasma membranes of surrounding cells are partially permeable; Water enters xylem by osmosis; Volume of water in xylem increases; Cannot move back due to gradient; Pressure in xylem increases (and forces water upwards); Cohesion-tension theory – why an air bubble in the xylem vessel in a stem stops transport of water Evaporation from leaves / transpiration; Water in xylem under tension*/negative pressure/pulled up; Water molecules cohere*/stick together/form hydrogen bonds; [Ignore: references to adhesion] So water a single column; Air bubble breaks column / prevents cohesion; Structure of leaves of Xerography to keep water in

Thin epithelium/distance between water and blood; 4 Water and blood flow in opposite directions/counterculture; Point above maintains concentration gradient (along gill)/equilibrium not reached; * Not enough to say gives steep concentration gradient As water always next to blood with lower concentration of oxygen; Circulation replaces blood saturated with oxygen; Ventilation replaces water (as oxygen removed); 6 Max 6-8 Accept answers relating to carbon dioxide Why water is always lost from the gas exchange surfaces of terrestrial organisms Gas exchange surfaces are permeable (to small molecules); Geiger concentration of water molecules inside animal than out / gradient; water will diffuse outwards / evaporation; Rate of water loss in insects low during gas exchange Reference to spiracles; limits exposure of respiratory surface / can close spiracles; sunken spiracles / hair round spiracles; trapping moist air; OR trachea cuticle lined; only lose water through traceless; trachea / traceless inside; limiting exposure of respiratory surface; Gas exchange in insects Waterproof exoskeleton; Rigid to prevent insects drying out; Network of tubes carry air directly to cells; Spiracles;

Lead to network called trachea; Branch into traceless (held together by chitin); Traceless go deep into insect tissue, carrying air quickly to every cell; Oxygen diffuses directly to cells; Carbon dioxide diffuses out, down their concentration gradients; Production of lactic acid when insects fly; Which lowers water potential; Water diffuse via osmosis from the traceless; So diffusion of oxygen quicker DNA Habitations Extract DNA from 2 species and remove non-coding regions; Heat to break hydrogen bonds; Mix DNA from both species and put DNA in tube, and DNA from Just one species in he other; Cool so that base pairs can form; DNA with complementary base sequences will form ; The more similar the base sequence, the more hydrogen bonds; Heat again – amount of heat required to separate (hybrid) strands indicates relationship; Feature Artery Arteriole Capillary Vein Structural Features Thick wall and small lumen Thinner wall than artery with relatively more muscle Microscopic vessels, wall only once cell thick Thin wall; little muscle; larger lumen; valves Blood flow Away from the heart Within an organ, to capillaries in different parts of the organ Around cells of an organ

Away from an organ towards the heart Type of Blood Oxygenated* Oxygenated* then becomes degenerated Degenerated* Blood pressure High and in pulses (pulsate) Lower than arteries and less pulsate Pressure falls through capillary network Low and non-pulsate Main functions of vessels Transport of blood to organs Transport of blood within an organ; redistribution of blood flow Formation of tissue fluid to allow exchange between blood and cells Transport of blood back to the heart Adaptations to main features Large amount of elastic tissue allows stretching due to surges in pressure and recoil towards; endothelial provides smooth inner surface to reduce resistance Large amount of smooth muscle under nervous control allows redistribution of blood; constriction limits blood flow; dilation increases blood flow Small size allows close contact with all cells In the body; thin, permeable walls allow formation of tissue fluid for exchange Large lumen of and thin wall offer least resistance to blood flow as blood is under low pressure; valves prevent backfill of blood Summary of different blood vessels I * reversed in pulmonary arteries and veins How penicillin destroys bacteria Disrupts/weakens cell wall;

Water enters weakened wall via osmosis; Osmotic lists / cell bursts; Effects of deforestation on species diversity Reduces number of trees; Destroys habitats; Loss of food source/shelter causes organisms to die; (so) diversity reduced; Migration of organisms may cause diversity increase in those areas High activity in relation to hemoglobin & oxygen dissociation curves Increase in CA/Carbon Dioxide decreases pH; decreases affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen more oxygen is released from oxygenation; dissociation curve shifts to right; Boor effect Key features in meiotic cell division Involves 2 nuclear divisions; 4 daughter cells; daughter cells are haploid; daughter cells show genetic variation (same genes but different combination of alleles) Stages of Mitosis Proposes Chromosome coils and becomes visible, as two chromatics held by a centimeter. Nuclear envelope & Nucleolus break down. Metastases Spindle fibers form, and centimeters attach chromatics to spindle fibers so they lie across the equator/centre Anapest Centimeters divide. Spindle fibers shorten and pull the sister chromatics to opposite poles of the cell. Once the chromatics are separated, they are called chromosomes. Telephone

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