Eukaryotic cells differ from the more primitive prokaryotic cells because of the presence of a membranous organelles in the cytoplasm, a nuclear membrane and chromosomal proteins. The nucleus in the eukaryotic cell holds the majority of the genetic material and controls all activity within the cell, analogous to a blueprint. DNA replication and transcription occurs in the nucleus. Translation of the Mrs.. On the other hand occurs in ribosome, which carry out protein synthesis for the cell. Ribosome are essential for protein assembly, including enzymes which are important for many cellular functions.
There is also the endoplasmic reticulum, which has two types: moth and rough. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum is responsible for lipid synthesis and processing metabolic processes such as drug detoxification and lacks ribosome. The rough endoplasmic reticulum is responsible for protein synthesis because of the presence of ribosome. Cell membranes are also important and cell walls are found in plant cells. Both are responsible for regulating the entrance and exit of substances and particles, maintaining an internal balance.
The Googol apparatus is responsible for shipping vesicles delivered from the smooth endoplasmic reticulum. Chloroplasts are only found in plant cells and use sunlight to create energy via photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is where plants use carbon dioxide, water and sunlight to create energy in the form of glucose for plant cells. (NUN Biology Lab, 2014) Mitochondria are found in both animal and plant cells and are the sites of cellular respiration, which creates TAP used as energy by the cell. Lissome are digestive organelles which break down macromolecules in the cell through hydrolysis.
For a cell to survive, it needs selective isolation from its environment, which is done through the plasma membrane and energy through TAP and cellular respiration. The cell membrane is made up of the phosphoric belayed which also has proteins embedded in it. These plasma membrane proteins are responsible for maintaining homeostasis through transport or by acting as receptor sites or even in the immune system for cell to cell recognition. Cellular transport can be done through active or passive transport.
Cellular respiration is essential to produce TAP, which is the universal energy source for the cell. TAP drives many cellular processes, including protein transport. (RCA Biology Pages, 2014) Cellular respiration has two main phases: glycoside which bread own glucose to pyrrhic acid and oxidation tot pyrrhic acid to carbon dioxide and water. In eukaryote, glycoside occurs in the cytology and the rest of the processes in the mitochondria. Photosynthesis converts light energy from the sun to chemical energy and stores this energy in glucose.
Plants needs light, carbon dioxide and water to make glucose in the chloroplasts. It also produces oxygen. Photosynthesis has a light reaction and dark reaction (Calvin cycle). Cellular reproduction is another important process for the cell and is how new cells are formed. Cells reproduce through two main processes: mitosis and meiosis. Meiosis only occurs for gamete cells or sex cell whereas mitosis occurs for the rest of the cells. During cellular reproduction, the cells duplicate their contents and transfer them to their daughter cells.
This process is essential for day to day activity and human growth. Mitosis produces two identical daughter cells and is responsible for the reproduction of somatic cells or non-sex cells. Mitosis is also responsible for asexual reproduction. Meiosis produces four genetically different daughter cells and leads to the production of germ cells or sex cells which is also important for sexual production and is a source of genetic diversity through crossing over. Meiosis is the reason humans can sexually reproduce.
Madeline inheritance relates to how genes are inherited from parent generation to their offspring generations. Mender’s laws include the law of dominance, law of segregation and law of independent assortment. These traits are inherited by offspring from parents by chromosomes which carry the genetic material. Different phenotypes or physical traits can occur because of different combinations of genes or different genotypes in the offspring generation. DNA is condensed into chromatin and chromosomes to allow it to be rendered from parents to offspring.
Issues or mutations in the DNA can lead to serious problems such as cancer. When cells continue to reproduce and is uncontrollable, this can lead to the formation of tumors. Cancer cells have mutations which make them divide uncontrollably. This can most often happen at the genetic level. Cancer spreads or metastasis’s when it leaves its origin. This can become dangerous for the human body when it begins to affect critical internal organs or even the brain. Gene control or gene therapy may be a possible solution to treat cancer by targeting mutations in the cancer cells.