Biology and cells Essay

These common features make it possible to learn clues about how our own cells function by studying the cells of other model organisms like mice, fruit flies or nematodes. Most organisms that we are used to seeing are multicultural and have different types of cells that are suited for a particular function. Bacteria are composed of a single cell but also share the same characteristics Just described. There are a few important differences though that will be explained below.

Organelles of the Cell Eukaryotic cells (all organisms except bacteria and arches (prokaryote)) have employ organelles which are surrounded by their own membrane (similar to the cell membrane). Nucleus – the nucleus is where DNA is stored and where RNA transcription occurs Mitochondria – often referred to as the “powerhouse” of the cell, this is the organelle that generates TAP (the energy currency of the cell) Endoplasmic reticulum – the system of membranes used for the folding and transport of proteins.

Rough ERE (endoplasmic reticulum) is covered by ribosome while Smooth ERE is not. Ribosome are structures made of protein and RNA (ribosomal RNA) where proteins are made translated). Googol apparatus – used for modifying and packaging of proteins Chloroplast – in plants this organelle is responsible for the reactions of photosynthesis Cell Parts There are other important components of the cell that are not considered organelles since they are not surrounded by their own lipid belayed.

Ribosome – the ribosome is a large complex made of RNA and protein that translates Mrs. into protein. Lissome – where the breakdown of nutrients can occur using enzymes Cell Membrane – this is the structure composed of a lipid belayed that separates the cell room the outside environment Cell Wall – found only in plant and bacteria this structure is found outside the cell membrane and serves as a more rigid protective barrier Differences Between Eukaryote and Prokaryote Bacteria (and arches which are seldom mentioned) are prokaryote.

The term prokaryote is derived from pro (before) and karma (nucleus): before-nucleus = pro- karma = prokaryote. This is because it is thought that bacteria are still very similar to their primitive ancestors which did not have a nucleus. So- bacteria (prokaryote) do tot have a nucleus, while all eukaryotic cells do have a nucleus (this is a popular question for exams- and a common mistake). Bacteria also lack all other membrane bound organelles.

Bacteria do not have: organelles nucleus mitochondria endoplasmic reticulum googol apparatus chloroplast lissome Bacteria do have: ribosome cell membrane cell wall (which eukaryote don’t have) Its also important to remember that while bacteria don’t have a nucleus they definitely still have DNA organized in a chromosome that is transcribed to Mrs. and then translated to protein on a ribosome.