Biology and Life Cycle of HIV Essay

DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) as their genetic material, HIVE (human immunodeficiency virus) is composed of two strands of RNA, 15 types of viral proteins, and a few proteins from the last host cell it infected, all surrounded by a lipid belayed membrane. Together, these molecules allow the virus to infect cells of the immune system and force them to build new copies of the virus. Each molecule in the virus plays a role in this process, from the first steps of viral attachment to the final process of budding. 5 years of research on the structural logy of HIVE have revealed the atomic details of these proteins. Using these data, researchers have designed new treatments for HIVE infection, including effective drug regimens that halt the growth of the virus. The structures also provide new hope for development of a vaccine. Although deadly to the cell it attacks, a single human immunodeficiency virus (or viral particle) is much smaller than a human cell. HIVE particles have a diameter of only 1/10,000 of a millimeter, compared to the average human cell size of 1/10 of a millimeter.

HIVE particles are also much simpler in structure than human cells. HIVE particles are made up of the following parts: The outer coat of the virus is called the viral envelope or lipid membrane. The viral envelope is composed of two layers of fat molecules. HIVE gets its outer envelope from its host. As newly formed HIVE particles break through a host cell’s surface in a process called “budding,” they wrap themselves in fat molecules from the host’s outer membrane. The complex proteins that protrude through the surface of the viral envelope are frequently called spikes.

These spikes are Hives landing gear, attaching the virus to a host cell and fusing the two together. Each HIVE has an average of 72 spikes. Each spike is made up of two parts: a stem and a cap. Within the viral envelope of a mature HIVE particle is a bullet-shaped core called the sapid. The sapid surrounds two single strands of Hives single-strand genetic material, ribonucleic acid (RNA). Each strand of RNA has a copy of the virus’s genes. These genes contain the information that HIVE uses to make new virus particles. HIVE has only nine genes, in comparison to human cells, which have an average of 30,000-50,000 genes.

The sapid also houses two molecules of HIVE reverse transcript. Reverse transcript is an enzyme that allows the Hives RNA to change into double-strand deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), so that it can pass into the host cell’s nucleus, commandeer the host cell, and begin reproducing itself. HIVE enters the body through infected body fluids. These body fluids include blood and blood products, semen, vaginal fluid, other body fluids that contain blood, breast milk, brain and spinal cord diluted, diluted around bone Joints, and amniotic diluted.

HIVE-indicted body adults may enter an uninfected person’s body in the following ways: – Having sex (anal, vaginal, or oral) with an infected person; – Being stuck or pierced with a needle or other sharp object that contains HIVE-infected blood; – Receiving a blood transfusion or organ or tissue transplant from an infected person; – HIVE positive women can pass Hived their children during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding. So how does the HIVE virus infect immune system cells and replicate? Viruses lack the chemical machinery that human cells utilize to support life.

So, HIVE requires a host cell to stay alive and replicate. To replicate, the virus creates new virus particles inside a host cell and hose particles carry the virus to new cells. Although HIVE can infect a number of cells in the body, its main targets are T-cells called CDC positive (CDC+) cells. T-cells are a kind of lymphocyte, which are cells that the body’s immune system makes to fight off dangerous invaders. There are typically 1 million T-cells per one millimeter of blood. HIVE will slowly reduce the number of T-cells until the person develops AIDS.

To bind to the CDC+ cell, a molecule on the cap of an HIVE spike first forms a chemical bond with a CDC molecule on the host cell’s surface. The molecule then binds to another acceptor on the host cell’s surface. Hives viral envelope and the host cell’s membrane then fuse together, allowing the virus to empty its genetic material (RNA) into the cell. This first step is known as Binding and Fusion. Afterwards, in a step known as Reverse Transcription, an HIVE enzyme known as reverse transcript converts the single-stranded HIVE RNA to double-stranded HIVE DNA.

The newly formed HIVE DNA enters the host cell’s nucleus, where an HIVE enzyme called integrate “hides” the HIVE DNA within the host cell’s DNA. The integrated HIVE DNA is called previous. The previous may remain inactive for several years, producing a few or no new copies of HIVE. This step is known as Integration. When the host cell receives a signal to become active, the previous using a host enzyme known as RNA polymerase to create copies of the HIVE genetic material, as well as shorter strands of RNA called Mrs. (messenger RNA). The Mrs. is used as a blueprint to make long chains of HIVE proteins.

This step is known as Transcription. An HIVE enzyme called protease cuts the long chains of HIVE proteins into smaller individual proteins. As the smaller HIVE routines come together with copies of Hives RNA genetic material, a new virus particle is assembled. This step is known as Assembly. The newly assembled virus pushes out or “buds” from the host cell. During budding, the new virus steals part of the cell’s outer envelope. This envelope, which acts as a covering, is studded with protein/ sugar combinations called HIVE globetrotting. These HIVE globetrotting are necessary for the virus to bind CDC and co-receptors.

The new copies of HIVE can now move on to infect other cells, without destroying its host cell. This final step is known as Budding. HIVE replicates rapidly with several billion new viruses made every day in a person infected with HIVE. What makes HIVE so difficult to stop, however, is its ability to mutate and evolve. Reverse transcript, the enzyme that makes DNA copies of Hives RNA, often makes random mistakes. As a result, new types or strains of HIVE develop in a person infected with HIVE. Some strains are harder to kill because of their ability to intent and kill other types tot cells, while other strains replicate at taster rates.

The more virulent and infectious strains of HIVE are typically found in people who are in he late stages of infection. Different strains of HIVE can also recombine to produce an even wider range of strains. In essence, HIVE is constantly changing and trying to evade the immune system. Its ability to evolve rapidly is one of the major reasons why HIVE is such a deadly virus. The immune system eventually deteriorates to the point that the human body is unable to fight off other infections. The HIVE viral load in the blood dramatically increases while the number of CDC+ T cells drops to dangerously low levels.