Biology and Psychology Notes Essay

Zygote divides and becomes implanted in the uterine wall Embryonic Stage Implantation until about 8th week Major organ systems are formed Growth occurs Head first Vital organs to extremities A Human Fetus at Twelve Weeks Genetic code (XX or XX) causes sex organs to differentiate Y sex chromosome – testes form and produce androgen’s Truth or Fiction? Your heart started beating when you were only one fifth of an inch long and weighed a fraction of an ounce. Truth or Fiction? A fraction of an ounce. TRUE!

Embryo is suspended in amniotic sac Nutrients and wastes are exchanged with mother through placenta Embryo is unconnected to placenta by umbilical cord Fetal Stage Beginning of third month until birth Characterized by maturation and gains in size A Human us a Four Months Childhood Physical Development Reflexes Simple, inborn responses elicited by specific stimuli Rooting and sucking, withdrawal, startle, grasping Motor Development Brain maturation and environmental factors Perceptual Development Within days, infant can track moving light 3-month-old can discriminate most colors 2-month-olds prefer human face as visual stimuli Fixation time – measure of visual preference

Perceive depth about time begin crawling Visual cliff experiments Two-Month-olds’ Preferences for Visual Stimuli Newborns hear normally; prefer mother’s voice Show no preference for father’s voice Newborns can discriminate distinct odors Cognitive Development The way in which children mentally represent and think about the world Jean Pigged – Cognitive-development theory Level Whisky – Coloratura theory Lawrence Goldberg – Theory of moral development Piglet’s Cognitive-Development Theory Schema “Mental structure” in organizing knowledge Assimilation Respond to new stimuli through existing habit Accommodation Create new ways of responding to objects Prior to 6 months or so of age, “out of sight” is literally “out of mind” Truth or Fiction?

Prior to 6 months or so of age, “out of sight” is literally “out of mind” Stages of Cognitive-Development Theory Seniority Stage Coordination of sensory information and motor activity Object Permanence Before 6 months of age does not mentally represent objects Operational Stage Use words and symbols to represent objects and relationships among them Egocentrics Animism Artificiality Conservation Objective Responsibility Example of Operational Thought Concrete Operational Stage Beginning of capacity for adult logic Deceleration Reversibility Subjective Moral Judgment Evaluation of Piglet’s Theory Pigged tended to underestimate children’s abilities Egocentrics and conservation appear to be more continuous than Pigged thought Developmental sequences do not vary Level Hoosegows Coloratura Theory Cognitive theory focused on influence of culture and children’s interactions with elders Zone of proximal development (ZAP) Scaffolding Children internalize explanations that encourage skill development Lawrence

Kohlrabies Theory of Moral Development Use of “moral dilemma” story to explore reasoning of right and wrong Stage theory with a specific sequence Lawrence Kohlrabies Theory of Moral Development Presentational Level Base Judgment on consequences of behavior Stage 1 – Obedience and punishment Stage 2 – Good behavior allows people to satisfy their needs Lawrence Kohlrabi’s Theory of Moral Development Conventional Level Base Judgment on conformity to conventional standards of right and wrong Stage 3 – Good-boy orientation Stage 4 -Judgments are based on rules that maintain social order Lawrence Kohlrabi’s Theory of Moral Development Vasoconstriction Level Base Judgment on need to maintain social order and personal conscience Evaluation tot Kohlrabi’s Theory tot Moral Development Research supports moral reasoning follows a sequence Postcolonial requires formal operational thinking Goldberg underestimated the influence of social, cultural, and educational institutions and parents Social and Emotional Development Erik Erosion’s Psychosocial Development Eight stages that represent life crises Trust versus Mistrust Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt Initiative versus Guilt

Industry versus Inferiority Attachment Emotional tie between one animal/person and another specific individual Mary Salter Newsworthy Behavior that defines attachment Attempts to maintain contact Anxiety when separated Strange Situation Method to assess infants’ response to separations and reunions with caregivers and a stranger Three Types of Attachment Secure attachment Avoiding attachment Ambivalent/resistant attachment Phases of Attachment Initial-preachment phase Initially show indiscriminate attachment Attachment-in-the-making phase Clear-cut-attachment phase Fear of strangers – 8 to 10 months Theoretical Views of Attachment Behaviorist’s viewed attachment as learned behavior based on caregivers attention Harry F.

Harrow Inborn need for contact comfort Attachment in Infant Monkeys Conrad Lorenz Ideologist – attachment is inborn Critical period Imprinting Newsworthy and Bowl Attachment is instinctive in humans Parenting Styles Diana Banding’s styles of parenting Connection between parental behavior and development of instrumental competence Parenting Styles Authoritative Authoritarian Permissive Uninvolved Outcomes from Parenting Styles iratest self-reliance, self esteem, social competence, achievement motivation withdrawn or aggressive less mature, often impulsive, moody, aggressive linked to delinquency and poor academic performance Adolescence Growth spurt Puberty Begins with appearance of secondary sex characteristics Menarche Usually occurs between 11 and 14 Brain Development Repetitive actions create increases in thickness of appropriate cerebral cortex Immaturity of frontal lobe Poor Judgment Excessive risks Piglet’s Formal Operations Stage Classification, logical thought, ability to hypothesize Abstract thinking Able to deal with hypothetical situations Adolescent Egocentrics Imaginary Audience Personal Fable Moral Reasoning Kohlrabies Vasoconstriction Level Most people do not reach this level Judgment is based on person’s personal values Stage 5 – Laws are made to preserve order but exceptions can occur Stage 6 – Adherence to universal ethical principles Independence is the challenge of adolescence Relationships with parents and peers Spend less time with parents Conflicts with parents Spend more time with peers Peers may reinforce positive behaviors Erosion’s Psychosocial Development

Ego Identity versus Role Diffusion Emerging Adulthood New distinction in development Roughly between ages 18 to 25 Attend college, sort out identity, create life plans Age of identity exploration Age of instability Age of self-focus Age of feeling in-between Age of possibilities Adulthood Early adulthood Usually height of physical prowess Middle adulthood Gradual physical decline Women – menopause Late Adulthood Bones become brittle – greater risk for falls Slower response time The Relentless March of Time The architect Frank Lloyd Wright designed New Work’s innovative spiral-shaped Guggenheim Museum when he was 65 years old. Truth or Fiction? The architect Frank Lloyd Wright designed d New Your Guggenheim Museum when he was 65 years old. FICTION! Creativity can be evidenced throughout lifetime Memory functioning declines with age Crystallized intelligence Fluid intelligence KS innovative spiral-shaped Tasks that require speed and visual spatial skills decline Alchemists disease is a normal part of aging.

Alchemists Disease Progressive form of mental deterioration Affects 1 in 10 Americans between ages 65 and 74 It is a disease, not a normal progression Great variety based on cultural expectations and individual behavior patterns Trends More optimistic than previous generation Grow psychologically healthier as they advance to middle age Social and Emotional Development Early Adulthood Establish their independence Middle Adulthood Empty nest syndrome Sandwich generation Most parents suffer from the “empty-nest syndrome” when their youngest child leaves home. Truth or Fiction? Leaves home. Young adulthood Intimacy versus Isolation Generatively versus Stagnation Late adulthood Ego integrity versus Despair