Pure water H+ = -OH; neutral pH = 7. PH 14 lowest H+ concentration. PH below 7 indicates Acid. PH above 7 indicates Base. PH = 7 is neutral. Acids = when dissolve in H2O, donate H+. 15) 16) Base = when dissolve in H2O, accept H+. Buffers can accept H+ ions or release H+ ions to maintain constant PH. Proteins = polymers of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds. Carbohydrates = Store energy and provide building materials. Lipids = insoluble in water (Fats and oils).
Nucleic acids = chain of 5 carbon sugars linked by Phosphoresce bonds with organic base protruding from each sugar. 18) Organic = characteristic of, pertaining to, or derived from living organisms. 19) Condensation reaction = covalent bonding; two molecules combine to form larger. Hydrolysis reaction = molecule splits into two smaller ones. 20) Primary structure = specific amino acid sequence. Secondary structure = folding of amino acid chain by hydrogen bonding into coils and pleats. Tertiary structure = three dimensional shape – folded shape. Quaternary Truckee = 2 or more polypeptide chains interact to produce one functional protein. 1) Saturated = all carbons are bound to the maximum number of hydrogen’s, solid are room temperature. Unsaturated = one or more double bonds between carbons, liquid at room temperature, polyunsaturated. Chapter # 4 1) Anton Van Leeuwenhoek was the first to observe living cells. 2) Cell theory states all organisms are composed of one or more cells, and life processes of metabolism and heredity occur within these cells. Theodore Schuman came up with the cell theory. 3) Plasma membrane, Nucleoli region or nucleus, Cytoplasm. ) Prokaryotic cells = No nucleus or organelles, Bacteria and contractible.
Eukaryotic cells = contain a Nucleus and Organelles = membrane bound structures that close off compartments within which multiple biochemical processes can proceed simultaneously and independently, all other organisms. 5) Fluid = individual phosphoric molecules can move from one place to another in membrane, unanchored proteins can move around in phosphoric belayed. Mosaic = contains various proteins embedded in phosphoric belayed. 6) Organelles = membrane bound structures that close off compartments within which multiple biochemical processes can proceed simultaneously and independently. 7) A.
Nucleus = Contains genetic information. B. Nucleolus = synthesis of ribosomal RNA. C. Rough endoplasmic reticulum = Covered with ribosome, protein and RNA site of protein synthesis Participates in synthesis of proteins, manufacturing for export. D. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum = No ribosome, Catalyst synthesis of carbohydrates and lipids. E. Googol bodies = Delivery system of cell, flattened stacks of membranes, Functions in collection, packaging, and distribution of molecules synthesized in one place and utilized at another location. Proteins and lipids in ERR are transferred to Googol and modified.