Pursuit of strategic interests could lead to political conflict. Cultural: chauvinistic type of nationalism – Jingoism. Encouraged by press. Colonies as symbol of prestige. Fashionable to be an imperialist Social Darwinism: survival of the fittest became survival of the strongest. One race being superior to others. Pseudo-scientific basis for modern race theory Religion: bringing Charlatanry to the uneducated masses. Would bring progress to backwards peoples. CAUSE OF WAP Distinction needs to be made between factors associated with imperialism and the political and diplomatic crises of July 1914.
Connections are Indirect Difficult to demonstrate connection between imperialism and the decision to go to ar Some historians (JP Taylor) deny any casual link between imperialism and outbreak of war In Europe WOOLLIEST (after 1890) Germany begins playing active role in international relations Aggressive promotion of German economic interests and acquiring colonies “Germany demands her place In the sun” First-class ocean going fleet top priority End of 19th century Britain not part of alliance Cost of defending empire too great Threats to: China, Central Asia Threats from: France (Egypt), Russia No threat from Germany yet Kaiser did upset British when he congratulated Kruger (Boer) on Jameson Raid (led by British) ALLIANCE WITH GERMANY Get strongest European continental power (Germany) to cooperate with strongest world power (Britain) Germany could have the continent, Britain could get on with business of the Empire Popular idea in Britain, but failed They didn’t have much to offer each other RUSSIA Dream to take back the Balkans Ultimately Constantinople Pan Slavish: uniting all Slavs in Europe under one government refused to accept Russian dominance Bismarck mediated the crisis = Congress of Berlin CONGRESS OF BERLIN Russia left with little Recognition of Rumania, Serbia and Montenegro
Autonomous principality of Bulgaria Austrian acquisition of Bosnia and Herringbone Cyprus transferred to Britain (close to Suez canal) = Russia Britain Russian hostility toward Germany led Bismarck to embark upon a new system of alliances…….. Quick modernization Imperial power in Asia Mejia Restoration (1867): series of reforms to compete with West War with Russia (1904 – 05) over Manchuria and Korea Japanese concern over Russian Trans- Siberian Railway across Manchuria Japan destroyed Russian fleet, although Russia had some success on land Westerners horrified Japan had defeated a major Western power MILITARISM A political, diplomatic and social emphasis on military matters.