Major population boom! By 1775 there were 2. 5 million people In 13 colonies youthful and growing quickly they were slowly moving westward past the Alleghenies most populous colonies Virginia Massachusetts Pennsylvania North Carolina Maryland Cities Philadelphia New York Boston Charleston Many races settled In America Germans – fled religious persecution, for economy, and fleeing war C] mainly in Pennsylvania – Lutheran, very loyal to German language and customs (not British crown) o Scots-Irish – actually Scots Lowlanders, Presbyterianism 0 No room in
Pennsylvania so moved further west 0 Very independent, lawless, individualistic ; Didn’t like any form of government – especially British D Buxton Boys – 1764 in Pennsylvania, Regulatory Movement in North Carolina Had been very poor and persecuted by British In Scotland so left to Ireland – still hard there so left to America, where most went to Pennsylvania for religious tolerance 0 Many became patriots later on o Hugeness, Welsh, Dutch, Swedes, Jews, Irish, Swiss, Scots Highlanders 0 All (except SSH) weren’t loyal to British government o Many Africans o Most mixed population of anywhere in world Occurred – “strange mixture of blood, which you will find in no other country’ ; Most Americans at this time were small fame’s o Able to have rags-to-riches story, unheard of in England “Europeanization” o Elites were beginning to form 0 Everything English was better o War C] widows and orphans, Philly and NY built almshouses for destitute o Became harder to find land to farm 0 many tenant farmers o Voluntary vs. Involuntary Indentured servants CLC Voluntary – much better off o Blacks slaves 0 Could never get free Economic Professions Ministry – most honored Physicians – not trained or honored Constant epidemics, would kill thousands Law – first not honored then became Work Agriculture – main industry Tobacco – staple in Chesapeake area Wheat – spread in Chesapeake also Grain – middle colonies (Called “Bread colonies”) – major exports o Fishing Cod – Major in New England 0 shipbuilding industry Commerce New England, New York, Pennsylvania Brought food and forests stuff to Caribbean Spanish and Portuguese products (gold, wine, oranges) to England Manufacturing Rum in Rhode Island and Mass.
Beaver hats Spinning and weaving by women in households Lumbering was most important Shipbuilding First in EN and spread To make money that the colonists wanted to be more like the British they had to sell to foreign markets o French and West Indies 0 Bought timber, tobacco, food o So stop this Parliament passes Molasses Act – stop American trade with French West Indies 0 Didn’t listen – bribed and smuggled way around Terrible roads at this time o Used waterways instead o Taverns along routes of travel came up 0 All social classes mingled 0 democracy o Slow/ inconsistent mail system Religious Tax- supported churches o Anglican o Congregational ; Many people didn’t worship or belong to church
Anglican -official church of: o Georgia, N and S Carolina, Virginia, Maryland and part of New York o Major prop of kingly authority o Less strict than Puritan and not taken as seriously (William and Mary College set up to train better clerics) ; Congregations – grew out of Puritan Church, official of o All New England except Rhode Island 0 Massachusetts eventually stopped taxing members of other well-known churches Revolution o Anglican clergymen were supported by the king so kept to his side ; Roman Catholics were still discriminated against but laws against them were not strictly upheld and everyone could basically worship whoever they pleased ; No established churches in: o Rhode Island, New Jersey, Delaware, or Pennsylvania Great Awakening Religion was weakening o Jacobs Armin’s – preached individual free will determined person’s eternal fate People began trying to revive it 0 Great Awakening (sass’s-ass’s) o Started in Northampton, Massachusetts by Jonathan Edwards 0 He was very fire-y 0 People started copying him o George Whitfield 0 Style of evangelical preaching 0 Was very eloquent 0 Got everyone up in his speech 0 Inspired and frightened Caused split between Congregationalist and Presbyterian over issues o Baptists became more popular o This led to new missionary work with Indians and black slaves o Also many higher learning centers opened up 0 Princeton, Brown, Rutgers, Dartmouth o Led to Americans feeling they had common history and experiences Education Slowly became no longer reserved for aristocrats ; In New England – faster because Puritans wanted it for religion ;Many elite went to England to study But there were primary and secondary schools opened in England ; There were also public and private elementary schools
Wealthy families got private tutors o Benjamin Franklin – University of Pennsylvania o Harvard, William and Mary, Yale, Princeton, Columbia, Brown, Rutgers, Dartmouth Culture Liked European styles of everything Best artists went to England to study No one could really afford art in America John Singleton Copley Official court painter, loyalist, buried in SST. Pall’s Cathedral ; Phillips Whitley Slave, wrote poetry Benjamin Franklin Poor Richards Almanacs Also was into science – lighting with electricity experiment Writing Invented Franklin stove, lighting rod, bifocals, Clergymen condemned for trying to change gods will Press o Not many had enough money for books o Newspapers started and added a lot to the revolution o John Peter Zinger 0 Printer who wrote badly about royal governor and was charged with libel.
Andrew Hamilton defended him and said it was the truth and was able to convince jury 0 Major step in freedom of the press Political 8 royal colonies o Governors appointed were politicians sometime good and upstanding, others corrupt Colonists would make sure to stay in charge and would withhold salary to make governors listen to them ; Maryland, Pennsylvania, Delaware – 3 proprietary Connecticut, Rhode Island – 2 self-governing Lost all colonies had 2 house legislative body Upper house/council 0 In royal – appointed by king In proprietary – appointed by proprietor 0 In self-governing – appointed by voters Lower house Elected by people White, male, landowners Self-taxation was very important to Americans Americans cherished their freedoms and in general, though not completely democratic, were much more democratic than England and were sowing the seeds General Had enough food but monotonous Cold – no heaters in churches ; No running water, plumbing