Pearson Education, Inc. This lecture will help you understand: What Science Is Scientific Measurements Mathematics-?The Language of Science Scientific Methods The Scientific Attitude Science, Art, and Religion Science and Technology Physics-?The Basic Science Science ; is a body of knowledge. ; is an ongoing human activity. ; has beginnings that precede recorded history. Measurements are a hallmark of good science. “l often say that when you can measure something and express it in numbers, you know something about it.
When you cannot measure it, when you of a meager and unsatisfactory kind. It may be the beginning of knowledge, but you have scarcely in your thoughts advanced to the stage of science, whatever it may be. ” -?Lord Kelvin Measurements ; relate to how much you know about something. ; of pinhole images of the Sun nicely lead to a calculation of the Sun’s diameter. These round images of the Sun are crescent shaped during a partial solar eclipse. 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Some Early Scientific ; Eratosthenes-?Diameter of Earth ; Aristocrats-?Distance and Size of the Moon
Integration of science and mathematics ; Occurred some four centuries ago. ; Ideas of science are unambiguous when expressed in mathematical terms. ; Equations of science provide expressions of relationships between concepts ; Equations are “guides to thinking. ” ; There is no one scientific method. ; In general, scientific methods refer to principles and procedures for the systematic pursuit of knowledge involving the recognition and formulation of a problem, the collection of data through observation and experiment, and the formulation and testing of hypotheses. Ђ?Common Steps 1. Recognize a question, a puzzle, or an unexplained fact. 2. Make a hypothesis (educated guess) to resolve the puzzle. 3. Predict consequences of the hypothesis. 4. Perform experiments or make calculations to test the predictions. 5. Formulate the simplest general rule that organizes the three main steps. The scientific attitude is one of ; inquiry. ; experimentation. ; willingness to admit error. Scientists ; are experts at changing their minds. ; must accept experimental findings -test for erroneous beliefs -understand objections and positions of antagonists. Fact is a close agreement by impotent observers who make a series of observations about the same phenomenon. ; A scientific hypothesis is an educated guess that is only presumed to be factual until supported by experiment. Which of these is a scientific hypothesis? A. B. C. D. The Moon is made of green cheese. Atomic nuclei are the smallest particles in nature. A magnet will pick up a copper penny. Cosmic rays cannot penetrate the thickness of your Conceptual Physics textbook. A. The Moon is made of green cheese. B. Atomic nuclei are the smallest particles in nature. C.
A magnet will pick up a copper penny. D. Cosmic rays cannot penetrate the thickness of your Conceptual Physics textbook. Explanation: All are scientific hypotheses! All have tests for proving wrongness, so they pass the test of being a scientific hypothesis. Protons carry an electric charge. Undetectable particles are some of nature’s secrets. Charged particles bend when in a magnetic field. All of the above are scientific hypotheses. Which of these is not a scientific hypothesis? A. Protons carry an electric charge. B. Undetectable particles are some of nature’s secrets. C. Charged particles bend when in a magnetic field.
D. All of the above are scientific hypotheses. Choices A and C can be disproved by experiments. Choice B has no test for wrongness, so it is not a scientific hypothesis. Law or principle ; A hypothesis that has been tested repeatedly and has not been contradicted Theory ; A synthesis of a large body of information that encompasses well-tested and verified hypotheses about certain aspects of the natural world Which of these often changes over time with further study? Facts. Theories. Both of the above. Neither of the above. Which of these often changes over time with further study? Both can change.
As we learn new information, we refine our ideas; likewise in science. A person who says, “that’s only a theory’ likely doesn’t know that a scientific theory is a A. Guess. B. Number of facts. C. Hypothesis of sorts. D. Vast synthesis of well-tested hypotheses and facts. D. Vast synthesis of well-tested hypotheses and facts. The word “theory’ in everyday speech is different than its use in science. In science, only a vast, experimentally verifiable body of knowledge is a theory. Comparison of science, art, and religion by domain: – Science is of the natural order and involves he discovery and recording of natural phenomena. Art is the interpretation and expression of human experience. – Religion involves faith and worship off supreme being. ; Similarities between art and in science – Knowledge of what is possible in human experience and in nature. – Knowledge of both affects our views and decisions about the world. ; Similarities between religion and in science – Both deal with unanswered questions. Between a pilot and a priest, who do you think should fly a commercial Jet airplane? Who should perform a marriage? (Although the questions are no-brainier, they have a point. A.
The pilot should fly and the priest should perform a marriage. B. The priest should fly and the pilot should perform a C. The pilot should do both. D. The priest should do both. Should perform a marriage? A. The pilot should fly and the priest should perform a marriage. The pilot and priest have different skills for different tasks, and each can do their thing well. ; Science is concerned with gathering and organizing knowledge. ; Technology is the use of scientific knowledge for practical purposes and to provide tools for further exploration. ; Physical sciences include geology, astronomy, hemisphere, and physics. Life sciences include biology, zoology, and botany. ; Physics underlies all the sciences. Although physics may be the most difficult science course in certain schools, when compared with the fields of chemistry, biology, geology, and astronomy, it is A. The simplest. C. The central science, between chemistry and biology. D. Simple enough, but only for especially intelligent people. B. Still the hardest! People. Explanation: Your physics text has fewer terms than biology or chemistry texts. Physics is a much more basic science than other fields.