Forensic Chemistry Essay

Heroin is a schedule I controlled substance meaning it has no medical uses and has a high potential for buses. Abuse is classified as illegal usage off drug or excessive use above recommended dosage. Some health effects Include nervous system disturbances, narcosis, asthma and acute pulmonary edema. Some symptoms documented are respiratory irritation, meiosis, diploma, nausea, vomiting, constipation, euphoria, dizziness, sleepiness, coma, respiratory depression, pulmonary edema, death. The central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract are among the affected systems in the human body.

Some lesser known of the above symptoms are defined as such: Narcosis is the state of unconsciousness stemming from drug Ingestion. Diploma refers to double vision. L Respiratory depression, also known as hyperventilation, Is when twelve or less breaths are taken per minute that does not provide the lungs with the proper amount of oxygen. Respiratory Irritation refers to any disruption of breathing; an example would be asthma. Pulmonary edema Is when the heart Is unable to properly pump blood through the body and the lungs become starved for oxygen. Formal Oval LEVI, 5 In 2008.

The beginning of the article starts on page 577 within Formal. Male George, Dan BГ?LГ?LГ?U, Male Ill, Daniel-LULAS Bacon and Anne-Merle Coolant performed the procedure. George from Criminality’s Research Institute of the Romania Police General Inspectorate, 13-15 *fan cell Mare Star. , Bucharest, Romania. BГ?LГ?LГ?U, Ill and Bacon from “Carol David” university of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Toxicology Department, 6 Train Uvula Star. , Bucharest, Romania. Coolant from “Carol David” University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medicines Control Department, 6 Train Uvula Star. Bucharest, Romania. The article Is written In two languages, English and Romania. The article begins with an abstract definition of heroin and opiates. They stated that Also stated is heroin being an addictive drug, is commonly adulterated with other substances, sometimes other drugs to increase quantity. They clearly state the reason behind the article is the analysis of seized heroin by gas chromatography- mass spectrometry. Also stated are the components identified in the procedure were heroin, acetylene’s, moonscape, caffeine and Phenobarbital.

The article’s introduction describes heroin to the reader as a highly addictive, illegal drug that is the most abused in its opiate family. The article states it is processed from morphine and that morphine is naturally occurring. Street heroin is mixed with or “cut” with other substances. The list given of substances include caffeine, quinine, strychnine, Phenobarbital, sugar, starch and powdered milk. Risk of overdose is high with cut heroin as the user is unaware of the strength of neither heroin being ingested nor what substance it is mixed with.

Stated within the article is the GO-MS is a specific test in that it positively identifies the presence of a given sample. It is considered the “gold standard” of forensic testing of unknown substances. The article presents the results of the GO-MS testing for identification of four heroin samples. Substances used in the testing included the four seized heroin samples which were labeled at X, Z, U, V and methanol HAPLY grade. The GO-MS Fissions Instrument 8060 with mass-spectrometer Trio 1000 was used along with VII ms capillary columns that were 30 meters long x 0. 2 millimeters in diameter and 0. 25 micrometers in thickness. The Wiley 6 mass spectra library was also used. The specifics of the chromatography conditions were listed as follows: * Temperature program: initial temperature ICC held for one minute then aerogramme to raise in interments of ICC per minute to ICC and held for 10 minutes at ICC * Injection port temperature was ICC * Transfer line temperature ICC * Carrier gas used was helium held ATA flow rate of 2 millimeters per minute * Scanning range was 50-500 a. M. U. The specified ions monitored were listed as follows * caffeine: 194, 109, 55, 67, 82, 195, 45, 110 * codeine: 299, 42, 162, 124, 229, 59, 300, 69 * Phenobarbital: 204, 117, 146, 161, 77, 103, 115, 118 268, 310, mm 215,204 * Heroin: 327, 43, 369, The samples were prepared as 0. 000010 grams were dissolved in methanol and injected into the gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer. Results: Sample X had five peaks at 789, 1017, 1135, 1164 and 1234. The mass spectrum Phenobarbital. Peak at scan 1135 indicated codeine. Peak at scan 1164 detected acetaminophen.

Noted is acetaminophen is normally seen as an impurity from the manufacturing process of heroin. Peak at scan 1234 detects heroin. Peaks for sample X can be seen in figure below: Sample Z had three peaks, 1133, 1214 and 1695. Peak at scan 1133 detected acetaminophen, heroin at scan 1214 and moccasins at scan 1695. Noted is moccasins is seen in street heroin that comes from opium. Opium is the raw material for the manufacture of heroin. Peaks for sample Z can be seen in figure below: Sample U had two peaks. Peak at scan 1134 indicated acetaminophen and heroin at scan 1234.

Peaks for sample U can be seen in figure below: Sample V had two peaks. Acetaminophen at scan 1135 and heroin at scan 1208. Peaks for sample V can be seen in figure below: Conclusions are that the results confirm the presence of heroin, acetylene’s and moccasins in the four samples of seized heroin and also detected were Phenobarbital and caffeine which are common adulterants. Conclusion also states hat the identification of components within illicit heroin sample is possible with GO- MS. References within the article are as follows: 1 . Bacon D. , Taxonomic, note De curs, Editor Templates Company S.

R. L. , Obscure$I, 2005, 79,90 2. Brininess R. , Hasher F. , GO/MS determination of paralysis products from disintermediation and adulterants of street heroin samples, J Forensic Sic. , 2002, 47(4):885-888 3. *** Slacker’s Analysis of Drugs and Poisons in Pharmaceuticals, Body Fluids and Postmortem Material – Des. Nonfat A. C. , Shelton M. D. , Widow B. , Caliches L. Y. , third edition, The Pharmaceutical Press, London, Chicago, 2004, 37-52 4. Clemency S. , Moonscape as an adulterant in illicit heroin samples, Forensic sic Into. ,2000, 108(1), 45-49 5. Ghana D. , Shih X. , Yuan Z. Jug H. , Component analysis of illicit heroin samples with GO/MS and its application in source identification, J Forensic Sic. , 2004, 49(1), 81-86 Footnote 6 encompasses the whole of the information above in reference to the published article Describe the components of the instrumentation used, and include labeled drawings The GO-MS is composed of two steps, the gas chromatograph as the first step and the mass spectrometer as the second step. The gas chromatograph separates a substance’s chemical components and is used to identify the substance’s chemical composition.

The substance being identified is pushed through at a constant flow at a certain pressure. The substance is transported into the gas chromatograph with a gas instead of liquid like in liquid chromatography. The flow and pressures are dependent on the type of gas used as the carrier gas and the compound being analyzed. There are two phases to gas chromatography, the mobile and the stationary phases. This is the mobile phase. 5 The carrier gases used are helium, nitrogen or hydrogen. Helium gas (He) is a noble gas with a density of 0. 1786 gram per liter, melting point and -272. ICC and a boiling point of -268. ICC. Noble gases, also known as inert gases are odorless, colorless and have a low chance of reacting with other chemicals. They tend to not react as a result of having their valence electron shell full of 8 electrons, the most that shell can hold. Neon, argon, xenon and krypton are other examples of noble gases. Nitrogen gas is a colorless, odorless inert gas with a molecular weight of 14. 01 grams per mole, boiling point of -195. ICC and a density of 1. 51 grams per liter. Nitrogen is the most highly electronegative element, Palling Scale has it at 3. 4, in the periodic table due to having five electrons instead of a full eight in its valence electron shell. Nitrogen gas has a double bond between the two nitrogen atoms creating a short and strong bond that contributes to its tendency of being nonrestrictive. Hydrogen (H) is a colorless gas that has a molecular weight of 1. 008 grams per mole, boiling point of -252. ICC, density 0. 082 grams per liter and a melting point of -259. ICC. Hydrogen is listed as a 2. 20 on the Palling Scale. Hydrogen is able to take on either a negative or a positive charge within a compound it bonds with.

For example, in water, the oxygen is more electronegative than the hydrogen and the electrons are more attracted to the oxygen. This leaves oxygen having a partial negative charge and hydrogen with a partial positive charge. Water (H2O) has a molecular weight of 18. 016 grams per mole, melting point of CO, boiling point of 99. ICC and a density of one gram per cubic centimeter. In Shih, the hydrogen has the partial negative charge stemming from hydrogen being more electronegative than silicon. Silage (Shih) is a flammable as with a foul odor similar to acetic acid and no color.

Silage has a molecular weight of 32. 12 grams per mole, boiling point of-ICC, melting point of -ICC. The molecule is tetrahedral in shape. The substance being analyzed is inserted through the injector port. The substance is injected through a rubber disc, septum, which is able to reseal after needle from injector is removed. The area where the substance is injected is called the vaporization chamber. The chamber is kept ICC above the substances melting point to force the sample to vaporize and be carried by the carrier gas. The substance is injected into an oven which has adjustable temperatures.

The oven is set to reach a temperature that turns the substance to be analyzed into its gaseous forms which micrometer amounts of the sample are used. Too much substance causes trailing in the peaks and causes poor separation. The injector allows for precise amounts to be analyzed creating reproducible results as it removes the possible human error in measuring precise amounts of the substance. The gas chromatograph uses a capillary tube that is kept at a lower temperature than the oven allowing the substance’s different chemical compounds to condensate. This is the stationary phase.

A few examples of stationary phase types are timely Polynesian, used for hydrocarbons, polypropylene aromatics, PC’s, poly(phenyl methyl) silicone used for steroids, pesticides, glycols, poly (trifocal propel timely) silicone used for chlorinated aromatics, intro aromatics, alkyl substituted benzenes, polyethylene glycol used for free acids, alcohols, essential oils, glycols and 5% dauphine – 95% timely Polynesian used for flavors, environmental samples and aromatic hydrocarbons. The primary materials used in the capillary tube are fused silica and dainties steel or glass.

Stainless steel is used as the external layer and prevents any possibility of breakage and is needed when high column temperatures are used. Stainless steel can react with a variety of compounds so it is used as an external structural coating. Fused silica, molecular formula of SSI, is an inorganic chemical with a molecular weight of 60. 08 grams per mole, melting point of 161 CO and a density of 0. 47 grams per cubic centimeter. The tube’s outer surface is coated with a polypeptide as a protective coating which gives the tube a brown color.

The color is en to darker over time with exposure to high temperatures although the color of the tube has no bearing on its performance. General polypeptide has a temperature limit of ICC and the high temperature polypeptide has a limit of ICC. Either can be found used in gas chromatography. Polymers are a family of polymers known to have the greatest fire and heat resistance than any other organic, unfilled material. Polymers are compounds made up of several repeating monomers. The inner surface of the tubing is coated typically with a methyl or phenyl-methyl silly to prevent any reaction with the absence being sampled.

Methyl contains one carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms and is derived from methane. It readily oxidized, loses an electron, to form derivatives of itself, but its reactivity depends on what compound the methyl group is bonded with. Isolation is the process of deriving phenyl-methyl from methyl. This produces more stable, less polar molecules to work with. It also increases the volatility of the compound which makes it more useful within gas chromatography. The isolation process removes an acidic hydrogen and replaces it with a alkyl silly group. The retention time is recorded for each chemical compound as they separated.

Gas chromatography can be used in qualitative analysis in that the retention time, which is the time it takes for a substance to pass through the column, is a characteristic that is fixed and can be repeated. GO can be used quantitatively in that the area under the peaks can be measured to determine the concentration of the substance being identified. A baseline must be analyzed and developed from a known sample After gas chromatography, the chemical compounds are then read by the mass spectrometer using a magnetic field. The phases used to identify the compounds are unionization, acceleration, deflection and detection.

Unionization is the removal of electrons to create positives ions which is required for the spectrometer to work with the atoms. The ability to create positive ions even out of atoms than generally form negative ions come from the electron or electrons absorbing enough energy to be able to break through the electron potential barrier, known as unionization energy. Acceleration is when the ions are excited by being bombarded with high energy electrons to allow all the ions to reach the same kinetic energy. The ions are placed between opposite charges plates in which one plate repels the ions and the other attracts.

This creates a magnetic field around the moving particles. The ions pass though the magnetic poles of the attraction plate and react with the magnetic field in the deflection process. Deflection is done by an opposite magnetic field than what the ions gained and strength of the deflection is proportional to the mass of the ion. The lighter the ion the more it will be deflected and the heavier the ion the less it will be deflected. The ions are deflected into an ion detection system. When the ion detection system gets hit by one of the ions, it creates an electrical current which is then recorded as a peak.

The strength in which the ion hits the ion detection system will determine the size of the peak. Investigators are then able to compare the peaks formed from the chemical compound being analyzed and peaks of known samples. Explain the theoretical basis for each step in the GEMS identification of heroin. Provide a detailed description of the chemistry of the interactions between the components of the instruments and heroin. Using a fully programmed instrument, the possibility of human error is eliminated. The computer controls each step and can repeat the procedure without changes.

The injector extracts and reinserts the solution multiple times. The theory is to eliminate the possibility of air bubbles in the sample being analyzed. The number of times the machine does this is programmed by the investigator. Only a small amount of the substance is used in GO-MS. Too much substance can cause poor separation. The machine then injects the substance into the injection port which is kept ICC above the melting point of the substance being analyzed, for heroin which has a melting point of ICC, the port would be kept at approximately ICC.

The theory behind the temperature increase is the substance will be forced to vaporize, not Just melt in order to be passed through the capillary tube lead by the carrier gas. Vaporization is the process of a substance going from its solid or liquid state into its gaseous state. The carrier gases used are inert meaning there is no chemical reaction with the substance being analyzed. A chemical reaction takes place at the highly polar stationary phase. The high polarity aids in separating the chemical compounds as it attracts the ions of the substance being analyzed.

Polarity refers to the electrical hares (electronegative) of atoms. The negative atoms on the stationary phase pull on the positive ions. The stationary phase is more electronegative than the positive ions of the substance so the ions will be pulled to the stationary phase. The investigator can program a range in which the ions are detected. Heroin scanning range is generally set at 0-500 atomic mass units. The theory is to narrow the scanning range to eliminate detection of adulterants or unneeded components. The time it takes for ions to separate from the stationary phase and pass through the column is called the retention time.

The retention time is recorded and read by the mass spectrometer. The peaks are recorded and identified. The area under the peaks is proportional to the concentration of that substance within the sample. The idea is the peaks and the area under the peaks are able to be matched to a known sample of heroin’s peaks in order to accurately identify the unknown substance being analyzed. In some detail, discuss and explain the data obtained from an identification of heroin by GEMS. Illustrate typical results. The data retrieved from a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer is in the form of a graph with specific peaks.

Each peak is individualistic of the compounds the GO-MS identified. Peaks will reveal heroin as well as any substance that was used to “cut” the heroin, and any impurities. Comparison of the peaks with examples of known peaks aids in determining what chemical substance has been identified. For example, in a published procedure a peak at scan 789 shows the presence of caffeine. Peak at scan 1017 detected Phenobarbital, 1135 codeine, 1164 acetaminophen and 1234 heroin. Comparing the peaks to known data peak samples, allows investigators to determine the identification of the individual components of the heroin in question.

Discuss the use of Calibration Curves for determining the quantity of illegal drugs. Describe a typical drug calibration curve, and explain how a calibration curve is created. Illustrate. Calibration curves are used to determine the concentration of an unknown substance. The concentration of the substance is plotted on the x-axis with the observable variable on the y-axis. The observable variable would be the absorption. The concentration of a solution affects the absorption and can be measured with a spectrophotometer. The curve is formed by using several known prepared solutions and measuring their concentration and absorption.

These are referred to as calibration standards. These before the substance with the unknown concentration is plotted. Once plotted on the graph based on the observable absorption variable the concentration can be determined with comparison to the known substances. 45 The calibration curve allows the concentration of the solution to be found. Using the concentration and the volume of the solution, investigators can quantify the information with the number of moles being calculated using moles = molarities (concentration) x liters (volume).

A spectrophotometer is a photometer that uses a light source wavelength to measure intensity to order to calculate the absorption of light of a solution. In a typical drug calibration curve, multiple solutions have been mixed to known concentrations of a drug, like cocaine with a methanol solvent with samples being 1 M, 2 M, 3 M, 4 M. A spectrophotometer would be used to measure the absorbent of each concentration. Examples of absorption could be 0. 960, 0. 851, 0. 739, 0. 621 (not factual data). Using concentration on the x-axis and absorption on the y-axis, these points would be plotted as (1, 0. 60), (2, 0. 851), (3, 0. 739), and (4, 0. 621), creating a scatter plot. Before adding the plot point of the unknown substance, the scatter plot should be evaluated for any outliers that are different from the majority of the plot points. Outliers are considered any plot point a significant distance from the other points. An outlier could mean an incorrect calculation was made. A straight line would then be drawn as a best fit line calculated by linear regression. The solution with the unknown concentration would then be able to be plotted.

Using a spectrophotometer, the absorbent would be measured of the unknown solution. The absorbent would then be plotted on or near the best fit line. This will give the investigator the concentration of the unknown solution. Find a published calibration curve for either cocaine or heroin. Draw. Label the axes, and discuss the significance of these values. The calibration curve has seven different solutions of varying concentrations of cocaine. Plot one indicated a solution with a concentration of 0. 20 M and an absorbent of 0. 015. Plot two indicated a solution a concentration of 0. 0 M and an absorbent of 0. 025. Plot three indicated a solution with a concentration of 0. 50 M and an absorbent of 0. 49. Plot four indicates a solution with a concentration of 0. 5 M and an absorbent of 0. 51 . Plot five indicates a solution with a concentration of 1. 1 M and an absorbent of 0. 75. Plot six indicates a solution with a concentration of 1. 51 M and an absorbent of 1. 20. Plot seven indicates a solution 2. 1 M and an absorbent of 1. 45. Describe the statistical analyses that are used to validate a calibration curve. The calibration curve’s correlation coefficient must exceed 0. 90 and no curve point which is allowed 30% variance from it known value. If the correlation is less than 0. 990, outliers should be identified. More than one outlier may indicate the curve is to valid and the experiment should be conducted again. What is the significance of the re value? The re value is indicative of how well the data fits a line or curve. The closer re is to one, the better the data fits. In reference to the equation of rim + b, re being close to one means that more than likely “x” and “Y’ are actual solutions to the equation.

In precise detail, discuss the limitations of the use of calibration curves. Limitations, or shortcomings of calibration curves include the possibility of variation which can lead to misinformation. With computer software calculating the linear aggression of the line of best fit, there is a possibility of choosing an incorrect and overly complex model that is inappropriate for the information. Incorrect placement of the line of best fit would lead to an incorrect assumption of the concentration of the unknown substance. If the data are multivariate, and a multivariate calibration is required, a multiple regressions analysis from standard statistical software will not suffice. ” A statistician would be required to direct an investigator through this process as multivariate calibration is a specific area of study within statistics. 50 Multivariate statistics is the area in which multiple variables are being observed and discussed. The reason for this specific area of study in statistics is to observe and discuss the relationship between the data and how the different data relates to each other.

All natural and physical processes are multivariate by nature and statisticians within this field of study observe and analyze how the variables are connected the relationship between the variables. Describe how to prepare a 1. 5% solution of solid Brine Sulfate (F. W. = 1,013) in Sulfuric Acid. To prepare a 1. 5% solution of Brine Sulfate, add 1. G of Brine Sulfate to approximately ml (80% of total solution of volume needed) of Sulfuric Acid in a moll graduated cylinder and dissolve Brine Sulfate in the Sulfuric Acid.

After dissolving, add Sulfuric Acid until the moll mark is reached on the graduated cylinder. Brine Sulfate has a molecular formula of C46H54N4012S and a weight of 887. 01 grams per mole. Brine Sulfate is a white crystalline powder and has a melting point of ICC, is a stable compound that is incompatible with strong oxidation agents. Sulfuric Acid has a molecular formula of HASPS and weight of 98. 08 grams per mole. Sulfuric Acid has a density of 1. 40 g rams per millimeter at 25 co, melting point of ICC, and boiling point of approximately ICC. 6 ml of a 0. 5 M Brine solution is added to 54 ml of 16 M HASPS. What is the 0. 0015 moles Brine in original solution 6 ml + 54 ml = 60 ml = 0. 060 L new total solution 0. 0015 mole Brine / 0. 060 L = 0. 025 M Brine in new solution of Brine and HASPS 2. In specific detail, describe a published enzyme-linked nonabsorbent assay (ELISE) for the detection and quantization of Dehydrogenation’s. Provide the step- by-step procedure, and annotate each step with your description of the purpose of ACH step and the chemical changes that occur at each step in the procedure.

Dehydrogenation’s (TECH) is a schedule Ill controlled substance which refers to having lower risk of abuse or addiction compared to schedule I or II drugs and has a useful medical purpose of pain relief. TECH can go by other names such as marijuana, pot, Mary Jane and more. TECH comes from the cannabis plant and along with pain relief, it provides a relaxation state, increased appetite and decreased aggression. Its molecular formula is CO H2O, its molecular weight is 314. 4636 grams per mole and a boiling point of 1 ICC. TECH can be detected and quantified in blood, hair, urine, saliva and sweat.

The ELISE Kits are specific and sensitive tests to detect the presence of drugs in biological samples such as blood or urine. The microscopes are coated with a polygonal antibody that target the analyses. Microscopes are flat plates with multiple wells used as test tubes. Polygonal cells are descended from one or more groups of small cells. These cross-react with drugs in a specific drug class, such as barbiturates or opiates, and is reflected by a color change in the sample. The intensity of the color s inversely proportional to the concentration of the drug. The results from ELISE test are presumptive only.

Presumptive tests establish if the sample is not a certain substance or could possibly be the substance the test is examining for. A confirmatory test, like gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, would be done after a positive presumptive test to positively identify the substance in question. The sample is attached to the microscopes in order to be identified; investigators refer to the sample as the antigen once this step is completed. The chemical compounds used in ELISE are referred to as antibodies. If the compound contains antibodies to the antigen, the compound will bind to the antibody.

The secondary chemical compound added recognizes the antibody that bonded to the antigen and binds with the antibody. This secondary chemical compound is referred to an enzyme. Enzymes speed up chemical reactions. The enzyme binds with the antibody and produces a colored product if the test is positive. If no color appears, there were no antibodies that recognized any of the antigens that it could bind to.