Foundations of Psychology Essay

Psychology is one of the core studies of the human being, which include investigating of behavior and mental processes. Many processes have to happen before one can even think a single thought. A specific stimulus through sensory organs, nerve interactions, and sorting through the brain are Just a few processes that occur. Psychology is one of the most complex areas of study. In this paper, I will identify the major schools of thought and examine their major underlying assumptions as well as identifying the primary biological foundations of psychology n reference to behavior.

Within psychology, to better debate and mediate through theories, there were categories or schools of thought, which summed up specific processes and areas of psychology. The first major school of thought was to be structuralism. This school of thought maintained its’ focus and studies on mental processes, which were broken into more specific and basic components. Edward Twitchier, the researcher who developed structuralism, believed that by using a method of introspection, he could take these mental processes from the conscious mind and figure a way to break them onto simpler processes, or an easier and basic idea.

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Along with structuralisms’ dominance in psychology is another school of thought called functionalism. Similar to the process of structuralism, which focuses more on the inner contextual ideas, functionalism focuses on what the ideas create in terms of functioning. Functionalism takes the processes and looks at how each of these causes a person to act. William James, one of the brilliant minds who founded functionalism, focused more on explaining in depth about a person’s functioning ability rather than describing what it would look like.

The next school of thought is behaviorism, which focuses on the theories that external forces creates the way a person may act, rather than being a product of inner workings. These studies focused primarily on observable behavior through different learning theories. Classical conditioning, one theory created by Ivan Pavlov, suggests that a person may learn behavior by relating an environment stimulus to a naturally occurring stimulus. On the other hand, there is operant conditioning, which contracts behavior as learned by rewarding and punishment. Behaviorism B. F.

Skinner felt internal thoughts could not explain behavior. Psychoanalysis is the next major school of thought. Created by Sigmund Freud, he believed the unconscious mind influences behavior. A makeup consisting of personality traits and primal instincts and urges, the complexity of these ideas created the complexity of human behaviors. Freud compelled there were three main elements of the mind. The ego was the containment of our personality traits and systems. I en tense Is ten superego, wanly Is ten mania’s values, cultures, Ana Delete that make up our behaviors.

Last, the id, consisted of the primal function such as instinct and urges. Finally, there is humanistic psychology. Abraham Mommas was one of the ultimate minds to which this school of thought was arranged. Mommas felt the ideals stemming from behaviorism and psychoanalysis were incomplete in theory. He proposed that there should be a systemic way to move forward in ones life in terms of achievement and success. Therefore, Mommas created the hierarchy of needs. This systemic map, if you will, contained the necessary steps and functions that a person must achieve, before moving to the next stage in life.

He felt a person could not truly become successful and happy in life without first meeting the basic needs of food, water, shelter and the like. This created a base for a person to build on, as they went up the hierarchy. Although there are only five school of thoughts listed in this paper, there are actually more that could be discussed. As stated earlier, psychology is one of the most complexes learning areas, which stems from one point and area to another and even at times merging into one another. Each school of thought proposes great ideals ND information, though, not one theory can be proven right or wrong in comparison to another.

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