Neurotransmitters and their actions Essay

Explain how an impulse travels down a neuron. How does that impulse get from one neuron to another? Describe how caffeine affects neurotransmitters. A nerve cell or a neuron is the core component of the nervous system. They send and receive messages and impulses throughout the body. These messages allow us to remember, learn, move, and perceive our surroundings. Impulses travel down a neuron and then from one neuron to another all throughout the body. In order for an impulse to make it to other regions of the body, the signal has to be timed properly and strong enough in order to be turned into action potentials.

A stimulus is what generates a nerve signal and can be caused by a chemical signal from another neuron, sound, touching a hot surface, ext. These signals are received at the flared end of the neuron called a dendrite. Here, the neuron processes chemical signals from other nerve cells. Once processed as strong enough to be action potentials they move to the axon (cell body) and continue on through the neuron. It then travels through the neurons supporting cells, the myelin sheath. Finally the impulse ends at the synaptic ermine’s, the little branches at the end of an axon that allow the impulse to be sent to their destination.

Once the impulse arrives at the end of one neuron it needs to be moved to the receiving cell whether that is another neuron or an effecter cell. First the action potential arrives at the end of the neuron at the synapse. The impulse opens pores in the axon terminal to allow CA ions to enter. This causes small pockets of neurotransmitter chemicals to move to the cell membrane and fuse to it. This releases the contents (the neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft, and allows it to attach to the dendrite of the next neuron. Many drugs affect neurotransmitters and their actions.

Nicotine, Tranquilizer, cocaine, and even caffeine can affect their behavior. Caffeine is fat soluble is it passes easily through all cell membranes. Caffeine counters the effects of inhibitory neurotransmitters, which makes us suppress the feelings of being tired. It increases or decreases a neurotransmitters synthesis, enhancing or inhibiting their transport. This information can be useful in my career as a nurse practitioner. A man comes into the clinic complaining of weakness in his hands. He says that they are not the movements seem to be slow reacting.

After doing an exam I ask him if he would be willing to do a neurological exam and he agreed. After assessing his motor skills and nerve function I believe that he has a form of progressive muscular atrophy. I explain to the man that neurons are the basic unit of the nervous system and are responsible for all the voluntary muscle movement in our body. They transmit signals from the brain to other neurons all throughout the body and eventually to the effecter cell. Due to the degeneration of his lower motor neurons, this process is slowed down immensely.

Because of the damaged neurons the messages his brain sends to his lower body aren’t always received and this can cause the muscle tissue to slowly waste away as the disease progresses and more and more neurons are lost. Explain now can AT ten Toweling contraltos Is related to respiratory Tunnels: There are many Conditions that are related to respiratory function. Lung cancer, Pneumonia, Tuberculosis, Emphysema, and Pulmonary embolism are all examples of conditions that are related. Lung cancer is a disease where abnormal tumors grow out of control in the lungs, affecting their vital process.

The Job of the lungs is to absorb oxygen from the air and then expel CO. If lung cancer goes untreated the tumors will cause breathing complications and eventually lead to respiratory failure which you would die from. Pneumonia is another illness that can cause respiratory complications. Pneumonia can be caused by a number of different things like bacteria, virus, and infectious pathogens. This illness is classified as inflammation of those lungs. This causes the air sacs of the lungs to fill up with fluid. The amount of oxygen absorbed from the air is reduced, resulting in a low blood oxygen level.

Tuberculosis can affect almost every part of the body but is an infection of the lungs. It is caused by a bacterial microorganism, the tubercle bacillus. Once inhaled the tubercle bacillus go the alveoli or the small breathing sacs in the lungs. This causes an excessive amount of coughing and sometimes coughing up blood. This affects the breathing due to the constant cough and discomfort it brings to the lungs they don’t receive enough oxygen. Emphysema is a long term disease that destroys the tissues that are necessary to form the structure and function of the lungs.

The destruction of the structures that feed the alveoli causes the collapse of small airways during exhalation. Air then becomes trapped in the lung. People with Emphysema don’t get enough oxygen and suffer from too much carbon dioxide in their blood, because it isn’t being expelled during normal breathing. This causes people to have shortness of breath during any physical activity, and if the disease is progressed far enough, they may have shortness of breath all the time. Pulmonary embolism is the blocking of a lung artery by a solid material brought through the bloodstream.

The pulmonary arteries are the ones that carry blood from the heart into the lungs where it picks up oxygen and carries it back to the heart. When one of these arteries is blocked the blood won’t get a sufficient amount of oxygen. This can cause shortness of breath and even death if the blockage is large enough that the heart would have to strain too much or wasn’t receiving enough blood. This information on the effects of some diseases on respiratory function can help me to diagnose my patients better. A patient comes into the clinic complaining of shortness of breath.

The patient says that it is constant, not Just while doing activities. I order some blood work and his CO levels come back relatively normal. Next, I order a CT scan of his lungs. After I receive the results I notice that he has a fairly large blood clot is pulmonary artery. I explain to the patient that this is causing a blockage in the passage of oxygen rich blood to the heart, thus causing him to feel a shortness of breath. I prescribe him a blood thinner to help his body to dissolve the clot on its own. I explain that if this doesn’t work we are going to have to perform surgery to remove the clot.