Report: Chemistry and Text Problems Essay

This Advanced Chemistry Course Is designed to be the equivalent of the general chemistry course taken during the first year of college. Students successfully completing this course will be endowed with an exceptional understanding of the fundamentals of chemistry and achieve proficiency in solving chemical problems. This course will contribute to the development of each student’s ability to think critically and to express his/her ideas, in both oral and written fashion, with clarity and logic.

Students must be disciplined, self-motivated and Industrious. Course Objectives: Quantitatively and qualitatively describe matter and its changes by applying concepts of liquids, solids, gases, solutions, chemical reactions, atomic theory, chemical bonding, nuclear chemistry, stoichiometry, equilibrium, kinetics, and thermodynamics. Apply and analyze chemical concepts through chemical calculations such as percent composition, molar masses, empirical formulas, gas laws, mole fractions, chemical kinetics, and standard electrode potentials and their use. ? Create, conduct, and analyze the laboratory experiments to engage and reinforce learning of concepts taught throughout the course. ? Demonstrate critical and independent thinking and an appreciation for the natural world. Grade Scale: The DA grading scale as follows: A 100-93 A92-90 8+89-87 B 86-83 882-80 C+ 79-77 76-73 72-70 69-67 66-63 62-60 59 or below Grading: All significant assignments will have written instructions including due dates and clear expectations.

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Refer to the course overview for further grading breakdown. Classroom Policies: This class will follow the DA discipline plan as described in the handbook and discussed during orientation. Students who misbehave will be given a green or red card, be excused from class, and be expected o email their parents about whatever behavior issue they struggled with. Drop Date: The last day to drop a DA course (without Incurring a W [withdrawal] on your transcripts) is October 5th. Please pay careful attention to this date.

Upon completion of Advanced Chemistry students will be able to Quantitatively and qualitatively describe matter and its changes by applying concepts of liquids, solids, gases, solutions, chemical reactions, atomic theory, chemical bonding, nuclear chemistry, stoichiometry, equilibrium, kinetics, and laws, mole fractions, chemical kinetics and standard electrode potentials and their einforce learning of concepts taught throughout the course. Attain an acceptable score on the College Board AP Chemistry Examination Demonstrate critical and independent thinking and an appreciation for the natural world.

Laboratory Laboratory investigation is a central pillar of the AP Chemistry course. Labs will include an emphasis on experimental procedures. Each week students will spend approximately two hours devoted to lab work outside of normal class time. Much of the laboratory work requires the use of experimental apparatus including volumetric glassware, such as pipettes and burettes. Students will gain experience with iltrations, titrations, collection and handling of gases, colorimetry, potentiometric measurements, and synthesis of compounds.

Some of this laboratory work will also involve the analysis of unknown compounds either by individually devised schemes or by systematic qualitative analysis. Students are required to complete a report for each lab experiment, including an a priori hypothesis, lab procedure, documentation of observations/data, demonstration of calculations, and a conclusion. All reports are kept in a well-organized, easily reviewed, quad-ruled, permanently bound notebook (no spiral notebooks, please! ) Materials a. . c. d.

Text: Chemistry: The Central Science 10th edition Brown, LeMay, Bursten Lab Manual: Laboratory Experiments Chemistry The Central Science 10th ed. Nelson, Kemp Laboratory Notebook quad ruled A graphing calculator will be extremely useful however not required typically be checked at the beginning of class. For full credit you should show all work including formula units, significant fgures (where applicable) and answers must be boxed. Tests and Quizzes There will be numerous short quizzes on topics covered in class. There will also be essay exams and unit tests that go along with each unit covered in class.

Essay exams (or free response exams) will be derived from College Board free response exam questions and graded according to the College Board standards. Grading The grading points are divided up into three categories: Formative and Summative assignments each weighted at 37. 5% of the student’s grade and the semester exam which is weighted at 25% of the student grade. The point values are as follows: Assignment type point value Homework (formative) 5-30 points Quizzes (formative) 5-30 points Tests (summative) 100 points Labs (formative & summative) 30 points Semester Exam 100 points Course Outline AP Chemistry l.

Matter and Measurement (1. 0 week) a. Matter, its classification and properties b. Units of measurement c. Uncertainty in measurement d. Dimensional Analysis The student will: 1 . classify matter according to a classification scheme among the properties of homogeneous, heterogeneous, pure substance, mixture, solution, element and compound 2. understand the difference between measured numbers and exact numbers and that uncertainties always exist in measured numbers 3. solve problems using various units of measurement including those with length, mass, temperature, volume, and density 4. istinguish between accuracy and precision in measurements . solve problems using the metric system and dimensional analysis and proper significant figures 6. name common polyatomic ions given the formulas and vice versa Elements, Molecules, and Ions (1. 0 week) a. Atomic structure, isotopes, atomic numbers, mass numbers b. The periodic table c. Molecules and molecular compounds d. Ions and ionic compounds e. Naming inorganic compounds The student will: 1. relate atomic theory with atomic structure based on indirect evidence 2. describe atomic structure and the properties of atoms, molecules and matter 3. efine and describe key terms such as isotopes, atomic number, mass number, hemical and empirical formulas 4. use the periodic table to accurately predict trends within the families and periods 5. distinguish among metals, nonmetals, and metalloids on the periodic table 6. compare empirical formulas from molecular formulas and be able to calculate empirical and molecular formulas from experimental data 7. discuss differences between ionic and molecular compounds 8. name inorganic compounds, including acid using a set of systematic rules Stoichiometry: Calculations with Chemical Formulas (2. 5 weeks) a.

Chemical equations b. Atomic and molecular weights; the mole c. Masses of atoms and from balanced equations f. Limiting reagents g. % composition The student will: 1 . write balanced chemical equations to describe a chemical reaction for synthesis, decomposition, single replacement, metathesis, redox, combustion, and acid-base reactions 2. calculate the molar mass of a substance, use the molar mass and Avogadrds number to interconvert among mass, moles and number of particles of a substance 3. work problems involving mole concepts, molarity, percent composition, empirical formulas, and molecular formulas 4. olve stoichiometric problems involving percent yield, and limiting reagents Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry (1. 0 weeks) a. Solution composition and concentration b. Properties of solutes in solution c. Solutions of acids, bases, and salts; neutralization d. Ionic equations e. Metathesis reactions f. Solution stoichiometry and chemical analysis The student will: 1 . describe the nature of aqueous solutions through water as a solvent and strong and weak electrolytes as solutes 2. identify common strong and weak acids 3. determine the solubility of ionic compounds from general solubility rules 4. rite molecular, ionic, and net ionic equations 5. identify metathesis reactions that go to completion (formation of a gas, precipitate or molecular product) 6. redict the products for reactions that are redox, neutralization, and precipitation reactions 7. perform stoichiometric calculations on acid-base volumetric (titrations), precipitation, and redox reactions Thermochemistry (2. 0 weeks) a. The first law of thermodynamics b. State Functions c. Enthalpy d. Enthalpy changes e. Calorimetry including working problems with calories and specific heat f.

Hess’s Law g. Enthalpy of formation The student will: 1 . describe the energy flow between a system and its surroundings 2. Explain the significance of the first law of thermodynamics and use the law to calculate AE, q and w 3. efine and distinguish among heat, temperature, work, energy, kinetic and potential energy 4. calculate the enthalpy change associated with phase changes 5. determine the enthalpy change or stoichiometric quantities for thermochemical equations 6. use Hess’s Law to calculate the enthalpy change for a reaction 7. describe a state function 8. se standard enthalpies of formation to calculate AH for a reaction 9. solve calorimetry problems using q = mcAT 10. interconvert among calories, Calories, and Joules Electronic Structure of Atoms (2. 0 weeks) a. Light and quanta b. The Bohr model of the atom and electron energies c. Wave behavior of matter d. The quantum mechanical model of the atom e. Atomic orbitals f. Electron confgurations The student will: 1 . determine from the electromagnetic spectrum: relative frequencies, wavelengths and energies 2. quantitatively and Qualitatively relate frequency, wavelength and speed of a wave 3. escribe Planck’s concept of quantized energy and calculate the energy of a photon using the calculate the energy difference resulting from the change in energy levels of an electron 6. state the meaning and possible values of the quantum numbers and assign the quantum numbers to a given sublevel or orbital 7. se the quantum numbers, Aufbau Principle, and Hund’s Rule to assign an electron confguration for a given element or ion VI’. Periodic Properties of the Elements (1. 0 weeks) a. Atomic sizes b. Ionization energies c. Electron affinities d. Metals, nonmetals, and semimetals e.

Group trends for Groups 1, 2, 16, 17, and 18 The student will: 1. interpret trends within the periodic table in terms of: atomic radii, ionization energy, electron affinity, and ionic radii 2. distinguish between meals and nonmetals and semimetals 3. describe how effective nuclear charge varies with position on the periodic table 4. ompare the relative energies of atomic energy levels and of sublevels Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding (2. 5 weeks) a. Ionic bonding and energetics of ionic bonding b. Ionic sizes c. Covalent Bonding d. Lewis Structures e. Bond polarity and Electronegativity f.

Covalent bond strength g. Oxidation numbers and formal charge The student will: 1. use periodic trends and electronegativity to predict bond types 2. compare and contrast different types of bonding 3. compare bond strength with ionic sizes of elements on the periodic table 4. relate the enthalpy dissociation of ionic bonding to bond strength 5. raw Lewis structures for various atoms, ions, and molecules 6. draw resonance structures for various molecules.

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