Protecting the rights of human subjects Code of ethics respect for persons, beneficence, Justice OR informed consent, voluntary participation, no harm to subjects, beneficence Informed consent (2 major components of informed consent) informed: knowledge, understand consent: agree (voluntary) data collection begins what must be included in the informed consent to meet these criteria must be “accessible” use of familiar words consistency in terms throughout document sentences short, simple, direct easy to read font personal pronouns (you) present purpose early titles, subtitles eating level of 8th grade or lower information bat the research process that it is research purpose of the research expected duration of subject’s participation description of procedures types of questions they’ll be asked description of any foreseeable risks description of any benefits to the subject or to others disclosure of appropriate alternative procedures that might be advantageous extent to which confidentiality will be maintained (and that others may, at times, have access to records) if more than minimal risk, explanation of compensation and/or medical treatment contact info for researcher and RIB tenement that participation is voluntary and they can end their participation at any time and possibly the number of subjects in the study an offer to provide a summary of findings Anonymity vs.. Confidentiality anonymity when neither the researcher nor the readers of the findings can identify a given response with a given respondent confidentiality when the researcher can identify a given person’s responses but promises not to do so publicly (ex) survey response by using numbers attached to the surveys so when these numbers come back, you know who responded and who didn’t (ex) Laud Humphreys Tearoom Trade
Institutional Review Boards (Ribs) committee required by federal law to ensure that any agency receiving federal funds establish an RIB so that research involving human is conducted in a responsible, ethical manner Ethical controversies: Malaria experiment, Tearoom study, Stanford Prison Experiment Malaria experiment (1974) obedience-to-authority studies of the asses, subjects were asked by an authority to give (phony) electrical shocks to another individual sitting behind a two-way glass some subjects complied with the request to the point of administering what they believed were fatal shocks to an actor behind the glass Tearoom study the homosexual relations that took place in various “tearooms” (I. E. , public bathrooms) during the mid- to late asses. By pretending to be a simple voyeur, Humphreys explains that he systematically observed these activities and even recorded the license plate numbers of a sample of tearoom participants.
While the systematic observation part of his study permitted an understanding of the rules and roles, patterns of collective action, and risks of the game associated with impersonal gay sex in public restrooms, his tracking down and interviewing a handful of the f those men involved in the so-called tearoom trade. Stanford Prison Experiment a study of the psychological effects of becoming a prisoner or prison guard. @Stanford University. An investigation into the causes of conflict between military guards and prisoners. 24 male students adapted to their roles as the guards enforced authoritarian measures and ultimately subjected some of the prisoners to psychological torture. Many of the prisoners passively accepted psychological abuse and, at the request of the guards, readily harassed other prisoners who attempted to prevent it. Rissoles quit the experiment early and the entire experiment was abruptly stopped after only 6 days If presented with a research scenario, be able to talk bat the ethical considerations involved (examples in lecture) Chapter 1 5: How to find, focus, and present research Where to find research Journals published periodically (quarterly, monthly, or even weekly) focus primarily on peer-reviewed original research articles, which are reports of primary research Open-access and E-Journals Journals published entirely online and open to free public use Books main form of publishing in-depth case studies, ethnographers, and historical studies Attending conferences and seminars gobs sponsor research conferences to promote knowledge and inform practice, professional associations hold research conferences for their members, and universities often have seminar series, some of which are open to the public provide early access to research findings Reports gob agencies, think tanks, advocacy groups, and other ores put out many research reports Working papers research papers that are works in progress How to search for research (and their strengths and weaknesses, particular wisped) Google Scholar
Google’s search engine designed especially for research Journals, books, and reports strengths search diverse sources from one convenient place helps you identify the most relevant research across the world of scholarly research locate the complete paper through your library or on the web learn bat key papers in any area of research weakness it has some gaps and should not be considered a complete listing Electronic Resources: Indexes, Full-Text Databases, and Aggressors sometimes a library will combine all the electronic databases to which it has access to form an aggregate strength searches are more specific than those of a typical search engine where the keyword’s role is not specified weakness there is some overlap in coverage; no one service provides access to all the published studies and articles that are available Wisped an online encyclopedia that can be edited by anyone all statements should be backed up with good sources and citations the so-called wisdom crowds in which the aggregated contributions of many Pl increase accuracy the idea is that false or dubious info, as well as important omissions, are spotted and axed by the many Wick users all over the world weakness the open nature of Wick means that it can contain unreliable and even false info Browsing and Following Citation.