“Harry Stack Sullivan and Interpersonal Psychoanalysis” Freud and Beyond pig 60-77 Sullivan believed that personality is extracted only through interpersonal relationships and cannot be physically measured or induced when alone. However, personality contains many surfaces and it is molded into a particular side for the corresponding environment. There are categories of behavior where one chooses from depending on the Individual surrounding them. Sullivan observed how schizophrenics are extra sensitive to social cues and body language and their homonyms have an origin.
Before Sullivan, psychopathology and therapy centers inwardly and now Sullivan brings the scope outwards: to the undeniable human need to connect which in turn explains our mental states or problems. The two factors governing interpersonal relationships include anxiety and motivation. Anxiety rules on the automatic response of humans touching dangerous substances, by physically or mentally withdrawing from the anxiety provoking stimuli. Sullivan claims babies are capable of sensing anxious states and adapt behaviors, which will result in non-anxious states within caregivers.
He coined the term security for defenses that reduce anxiety temporarily but not delete the permanent issue, People come together on the basis of common intentions that satisfy both parties- also known as integrating tendencies. Sullivan, H. S. The Interpersonal Theory of Psychoanalysis WWW Norton and Co. , NY, 1953, pig 227-262 The Juvenile Era refers to a stage where a child learns how to form relationships among peers or other Juveniles of the same age group. However, the child also aster behaviors that are suitable and promoted by teachers.
Their authoritative presence is accepted and exists other than the sole authority held by parents before the Juvenile era. The Juvenile is introduced to numerous skills from the educational system- competition and compromise. The spirit of competition is worshipped in our society whether It Is In school or workplace. Especially the Aslant household, parents continually compare the achievements of their offspring and this attitude trickles down to the next generation. Children competing for grades are very common, where absolute perfect scores are valued.
On the other hand. Compromise attributes sacrifice within the child to acknowledge the needs of others and willingly reach a settlement. Ostracism is a common behavior seen amongst group settings. It consequently happens in animal species, when an animal suffers albinism and Is ostracizes due to a difference in appearance or has an unusual habit, Just Like human beings. Stereotypes are also introduced into the child’s cognition. Therefore, unbiased opinions can be deterred room early stereotypes the child adapted.
Entering Preadolescence, the child starts to desire for specifics. Unlike the Juvenile era where interest is broadened to all but it is focused more onto affinity with a member of the same sex as a close friend. Intimacy is largely misinterpreted with the general society claiming It Involves sexual relations when In reality Its true definition Is closeness. The Juvenile unknowingly learns selflessness wherein ones action Is a direct cause to the close friend’s contentment and willingly initiate good behavior