Terrorism today, has changed from being a vehicle of intra-state violence to a transnational phenomenon, where loosely organized international network of terrorists use mercenaries, organized crimes cartels, sophisticated weaponry and modern communication to operate from, through and into various countries. To quote Mr.. Assonant Sings, Four demonstrations: of easy access to rapid communication, to technology, to easy to travel and a demagnification of access to weapon of destruction, 1 has largely been responsible for the increasing trend towards transnational terrorism.
With the development in science, technology and communication knowledge, terrorists and states sponsoring terrorism, are believed to be gaining access to non-conventional weapons of mass destruction like nuclear, biological and chemical weapons. Termed as weapons of mass destruction, these are the dream of any terrorist group. One of the most violent and horrendous dimensions of transnational terrorism using modern systems, non-conventional weapons and having transnational linkages was seen on September 1 1, 2001.
The single act has brought a conceptual change in the terrorism warfare theory where ‘Idea terrorism’ has been used. 2 Radical changes have taken place in the ways in which terrorist acts eave been committed against the most powerful country of the world without using conventional terrorism weapons. They used equipments, machines and tools of terror of modern developed societies as weapons by converting passenger planes laden with aviation fuel into a bomb and converting into a guided missile against World Trade Center/Pentagon (symbol of US economic and military strengths).
With a single coordinated action lasting less than an hour, they caused multi level damages and achieved several objectives- loss of life and property, loss of image of the target nation, economic recession and layoffs causing unemployment. One of the most perceptible things that happened was the change in the American way of thinking. It caused social unrest characterized by racial hatred and riots against people of particular origin/community, and the media gave it worldwide publicity for several patterns.
Today, terrorists and terrorism have assumed the stature of a full blown ‘Frankincense Monster’. 3 Terrorism is a strategy based on psychological impact. In most cases, their capability is rather slim. 4 Terrorism wreaks violence, inflicting pain and suffering that destroys perpetrators and others. Terrorism induces fear and increases poverty, suffering and loss of life with no apparent gain to any one. Instead of offering or seeking solutions, terrorism looks to destruction as an answer. In acts of terrorism, human values are lost.
There are five factors which causes the terrorism: the first factor is terrorism is caused by frustration and desperation. When people are desperate to achieve a stated goal and fail, the desperation brings up violence in them. The second factor is belief in a non-verifiable concept of merit and heaven: “If I die fighting for God, then I will go to heaven, because God wants this act to happen. The third is a staunch belief that “my way is the only way. ” The fourth factor is ignoring human values in order to achieve a goal and fifth, the lack of respect for life itself. Terrorism manifests itself in political, religious and socio- economic inequalities and exploitation. It thrives on grievances, real or imaginary. When the state or the ruling oligarchy fails to redress injustices, infringement of rights of oppression the terrorism is learnt. So long as the world of economic, social and racial indignities remains, the terror per SE would always be there. Terrorism has en used by political, religious, nationalistic and ethnic groups and by governments themselves.
Terrorism is a world-wide phenomenon. The terrorism is mainly product of injustice prevailing in society. 6 Since independence, India has faced a number of terrorists/insurgency-related situations, which have revolved around perceived concepts of secession with the aim of creating separate independent sovereign states. Although we have been able to control such Pissarro tendencies, a dangerous dimension has been added for the last two decades by the involvement of Pakistan in adding and abetting secessionist in Jam & Kashmir.
Having failed in its attempts of annexing Kashmir by force and realizing the futility of carrying out an armed adventure in the existing security scenario, Pakistan resorted to what can be termed as proxy war and cross-border terrorism. Cross-Border Terrorism in Kashmir: Kashmir is one of the most wonderful creations of the nature. Known for its beautiful lakes, snapped mountains, its majestic rivers carrying the water of great Himalaya, saffron fields, cherry blossoms and Chinas trees, Kashmir is certainly a “paradise on Earth. But, more than that it is tragically situated, in the North-East it is bound by Tibet, in the North by Sinking province of China and in the north-west by Tristan, in the West, in the West its borders Pakistan and in the South- Himalayan and Punjab. This valley have taken to the gun. Trained and armed with modern weapons across the border, the misguided youth along with thousands of foreign mercenaries have deeply disturbed the placid water of Shells. More than 80,000 lives have been lost during 59 years.
Kashmir is an issue which has its roots in the developments leading to and following the partition of the India. The nature of the Kashmir problem has undergone change in keeping with developments in the South Asia, on the one hand, and the changing international scenario, on the other. This is clearly manifested in post cold war period. The Kashmir problem remains a bone of contention between the two countries. Kashmir annexation by force or by diplomacy has been key national objective of Pakistan. According to some articulations, Pakistan can not survive without Kashmir.
The Pakistan military and political leaders propagated that the economic wellbeing of Pakistanis inalienably linked to Kashmir. Cards Abdul Oakum Khan, the president of Sad Kashmir, said: Pakistan can not exist as an independent entity by withdrawing its claim on Kashmir. It will be turn into virtual hostage to India and its lease of life will depend upon the period, which India will allow to exist. 8 Z. A. Bout also said ,the people of Kashmir are part of the people of Pakistan in blood, in flesh, in culture, in geography, in history and in every way and in every form, if necessary Pakistan would to end. These view generate opinion such as Kashmir accession to Pakistan was not simply a matter of exorability but of absolute necessity for its separate existence. 10 so called liberation of Kashmir from Indian rule is considered to be religious duty by Muslim fundamentalists and a section of the Pakistan army. Besides attacking India militarily, she also attempted to ferment rebellion in Kashmir by sending infiltrators into Kashmir in August, 1965, but Pakistani strategy failed particularly because Kashmir themselves did not co-operate in the endeavor.
The withdrawal of Soviet armed forces from Afghanistan and the changing geographical scenario in the late ass’s and the internal political developments in Kashmir provided Pakistan an opportunity to pursue its Kashmir policy on its own terms, I. E. -providing moral and material support and training to militant groups to engage India is in a proxy war. Pakistan decided to underplay the role of military action. In 1988, the then President of Pakistan, Gene. Aziza-LU-Has, placed a draft of secret mission , Operation TOPCA for annexing Kashmir before senior military officials. Outlining the plan to SIS and other officials, Gene.
Aziza said, “We must adopt an operation, which will destroy the will of enemy, damage his political capacity and expose him to the world an oppresses. “11 In early 1992, the SIS had established a common command over the disparate military arms of organizations that had mushroomed, true to the example set by the Mushiness of Afghanistan and the general pattern of Islamic militancy elsewhere. It succeeded in the fall of 1991, in mediating and settling an agreement between the military arms of the Whiz-LU- Mushiness, the Allah Tigers and the Khan-LU-Musclemen to launch Joint and coordinated operations.
Though somewhat tenuous, the SIS control helped in funneling arms, ammunition and money to the militants, besides conducting training and indoctrination programmers. The training campus had started turning out more hardened and motivated gangs, well- versed in the use of sophisticated weapons, explosives and radio sets. Whereas a 1992. There was a substantial increase in the incidents against the security forces from 6 in 1988 too high of 3,413 in 1992. India has lost nearly 47,371 lives to terrorism and extremism between 1994 and 2005.
This includes 18,151 civilians, 6,728 security personnel and 22,492 terrorists. The quality and the quantity of arms captured by the security forces, too, is indicative of the growing involution of the IS’. In 1988, only 34 AK-sis (or its later versions), were recovered; the figure went up to a whopping 3,775 1992. 12 Pakistan has been actively providing diplomatic, political, moral, and financial and arms assistance and training to the militants. The financial and military support by Pakistan led to increase violence in Kashmir. Once considered to be “heaven on earth”, Kashmir became the “abode of killers”.
The militancy reached its peak in 1993-1994. In these years the terrorist incidents reached to 8784, but it decreased marginally in 1995 to 8731. In the same year Charm-e Shari was destroyed in a massive fire by terrorists. Thousands of Kashmir took to streets chanting slogan, “Joe manger Pakistan, Asks Mileage Uzbekistan. ” This incident completed the disenchantment of Kashmir people from Pakistan. The British opposition leader, Jack Cunningham told, “what is going on in Kashmir today, is well armed insurrections well supported from outside. It is unacceptable and must stop. 3 John Mallow, former Principal Secretary of the US for South Asian affairs, said, ” In J&K, militants have restored to terrorist acts, we continue to be concern by credible report that the government of Pakistan has been providing efficient support to some of the militants. Any such support must come to an end for the future of Indo-Peak relations and far solution of the Kashmir issue. 14 The then US ambassador to India, Frank Wisher, condemned, what he termed as, “export of terrorism in Kashmir. “15 Not only the decline of popular support of Kashmir to terrorist, but also the concurrence to terrorist incidents decreased.
Yet, Pakistan continued its proxy war against India. Perhaps the waning support of the local population provoked IS’, Pakistani army and rulers, to enhance the level of the inflict and to send mercenaries led by Peak regulars in Cargill in 1999. The planned motive of this incursion was to win over Eel and there after to capture entire Kashmir by massive infiltration into it. Pakistani soldiers were camouflages as Mushiness. A unit of 10-45 soldiers was equipped with battalion sized fire power. It took more than two months, for Indian army to evacuate the area through ‘Operation Vicar.
On Cot. 12, 1999, a new military regime came in power in Pakistan headed by Gene. Parade Mustard, who is considered by the Indian establishment as an architect of Cargill intrusion. In an interview to a T. V. Channel, Gene. Mustard has stated,” If one feels that peace will prevail between India and Pakistan before resolving the Kashmir issue, then it is only pipe dream. “16 In Just a few weeks after assuming the power, Gene. Adopted an important stand on the Kashmir issue. He said, “For the previous government of Pakistan, Kashmir was Just one of many issues in Indo-Peak relationship.
Now however, for a new regime it is the sole issue. 17 Infant, Gene. Mustard declared that Pakistan would not enter into dialogue with India on any other issue till the Indian government made concrete and useful talks on the Kashmir issue. The government of India tried to put pressure on military regime through the international community, to rein in the Islamic militancy Jihad. The Pattern of Global Terrorism, a report brought out by the State Department (USA) has highlighted that element within Pakistan were supporting terrorism in Kashmir.
The Pakistan response to the charge has been ambivalent and it reiterates its long held position that it is only extending morale, political and diplomatic support to freedom-fighters in J&K. Through the insurgency in J&K, the Pakistani ruling elites have engaged the Indian military through a low cost option without the Pakistan military getting directly involved. This proxy war appears to be a part of a long term strategy to bleed India in J&K and keep it perpetually disestablished with aim to change the status quo in J&K. September 1 1, 2001, represented a watershed in international perception about terrorism.
The terrorist attacks by Alaska-e-Tibia(LeT), Jiao-e-Mohammad Mom),Theatre-e-Asks(Take) on Red Fort, New Delhi, J&K State Assembly House, Agrarians, Indian Parliament House, New Delhi, Seminarian Temple, Sharma’s in Gujarat, and twin bomb blast July and Augustus, 2003 in Iambi, on December, 2005, an attack on the Indian Institute of Science, Bangor. An educational institution was targeted for the first time in India. The Ram Combining/Briar Mosque complex at Today in U. P. Was attacked by heavily armed militants on July, 2005. This attack was foiled by security forces and the attackers were killed.
Three blasts in the capital ahead of the festivals of Diploma and old on Cot. 29, 2005 killed 65 people. Year 2006 alone has seen a series of blasts in sub-urban trains during rush hour in the evening in Iambi which killed 50 people on July 1, 2006. There were triple bombing at a temple and the railway station at Varnish. According to home ministry officials, property worth RSI. 116. 7 million was damaged by terrorists in the first six months of 2006, almost double of 2005. These horrific acts perpetrated by terrorists aided and abetted by Pakistan, defy any logic.
The American President, George Bush, has asked Gene. Mustard, “to take action” against the LeT, Gem and other terrorist organization, their leaders and their financiers. 18 It was in response, to this exhortation that Mustard iris froes the assets of LeT and later arrested its leader. President George Bush said, “It is very important for Mustard to make a clear statement to the world that he intends to crack down on terror. 19 Gene. Mustard reaffirmed, “l give the assurance that no infiltration is taking place across the line of Control.
Pakistan will never allow the export of terrorism any where in world from Pakistan. “20 Government of India has been seeking a political solution to the problem and took a number of steps towards such a solution, like Total Briar Baja, the then Prime Minister visit to Lahore, inviting Gene. Mustard to Agar, unilateral ceasefire against militants, release and rehabilitation of surrendered militants, several Composite Dialogues on CBS and nuclear CBS and the recent proposal to form a bilateral mechanism on terror.
Mammon Sings, the present Prime Minister of India said in NAME summit held in Havana on September 18, 2006, that Pakistan had given “an explicit commitment that they will work together” with India in combating terror. 21 Asked if another terror attack in India could Jeopardize the peace process again, Sings said: “Life is much more complicated than black and white. We have made an advance, let’s give it a try, and approach all aspects of India-Pakistan relationship with sincerity. “22. Much will depend on the success of the ongoing irregular warfare both in India and Afghanistan.
If international pressure on Pakistan continues, it may force, Pakistan to change and to reform and democratic its polity. This would clearly be among the foremost tasks in international security in the coming years, and an area in which India hopes to work closely with other partners. 23 Combating Terrorism in India: Some Suggestions Walter Liqueur argues that the only effective weapon against errors in the modern era has been the infiltration of their ranks and the use of informers.
Counter terrorism’s success in democratic societies is mainly due to advanced computer technology and the cooperation of a population that provides important leads. 24 Jennifer Jane argues that domestic counter terrorism measures focus on five main aspects. 25 1 . The use of exceptional legislation, 2. Maintenance of a vast intelligence network, 3. Development of pre-emotive controls on political activity, 4. Military involvement in civil disturbances, and 5. The development of a media management strategy in times of crisis.
Some of the suggestions that might form part of the combating terrorism in the Indian environment are as follows: 1. Evolving a pro-active national policy to give a clear direction to the counter terrorism mechanism, 2. National consensus and popular support to deal with terrorism, within the constitutional and sovereignty framework, all the political parties should rise above the vote bank politics and treat terrorism as a threat to national security and leave the policy of appeasement of minorities and states autonomy for some states, 3.
India needs to adopt a policy that includes eliminating the cause of militancy, resort to international diplomacy and make it too expensive for Pakistan to exercise this option against India, 4. Strengthening the internal mechanism- reorganizing and modernist the Police Forces and Effective Border Management, 5. Intelligence system, 6. Development with Good Governance, 7. Proper checking of foreign funding to terrorists, 8. Central Agency to monitor investigating of military case 9. Utilization of development funds, 10.
Media management- there should be extensive propaganda in national and international newspaper and Journals against terrorist and states sponsoring errors by eminent academics. 11. Diplomatic support is an important component of counter-terrorism, when terrorism emanates from another country and is sponsored by another country. Conclusion: Terrorism can be contained and could even be defeated. India has to overcome the general inability of democracies to put together the political will, the resources and the strategies that are necessary to prevail over terrorism.
Most of the indigenous terrorism can be handled through required reforms that would remove economic and caste-based inequalities, good and honest governance and effective policing. The Government of India should be prepared to raise the threshold of tolerance in relation to cross-border terrorism and to serve credible notice that India is ready to exercise her right of hot pursuit. The determination should be made evident that, if left with no other viable alternative, India would not be averse to adopting the Bush bases of terrorism outside of our national borders.
Once Indian’s capabilities and determination are made clear, the state sponsors of terrorist acts against Indian interests would realist the prohibitively high and unacceptable cost of such sponsorship. Combating terrorism also require educating our own people and creating in them an awareness of Pakistanis role and modus operandi— so that they remain alert and co-operate with the counter-terrorism agencies in countering the activities of the SIS in our territory. It also serves the purpose of reassuring the public that the Government is alive to its responsibilities relating to countering the role of the IS’.
These efforts should be transparent. They cannot be done secretly. A sustained political campaign must be immediately launched to win the ‘hearts and minds’ of the Kashmir people, assuage their feelings of hurt and neglect and restore their bruised and battered dignity. The people of J need to be convinced that their future lies with India. The Government must launch a sustained media campaign, both within the country and abroad, to highlight Pakistanis deep- rooted involvement in fostering terrorism and insurgency in J and other parts of India.