Using integrated linguistic and literary approaches Essay

King Lear is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare in the Jacobean period after King James I of England came to the throne. Tragedies, which centre around dysfunctional families or couples such as Euripides’ Made, focus on human suffering and require a high status protagonist to make a tragic mistake due to a flaw In his character which makes him human. King Learns tragic character flaw Is arrogance and in some ways gullibility as he believes his daughters, Reagan and General, when they flatter him to gain a share of the kingdom.

The key element for regarded is the protagonist has to die shortly after recognizing his error. It is typical for the audience to cry, giving them a cathartic experience. At the time the play was staged, the audience were already familiar to the plot as folk tales and literature, similar to the play had circulated, For example, the love test originated from the tale of ‘The Goose-Gal. at the Well’ where the king conducted a love test on his three daughters but disowned the youngest after comparing her love to salt whereas Cornelia was disowned when she said “I love your Majesty according to my bond, no ore no less”.

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Another source was the case of Sir Brian Manacles, who had three daughters and left his wealth to his youngest daughter Cornell. He developed dementia which the eldest daughter used to contest the will. However, Cornell was able to fend off her sister and gain her Inheritance. The source for the sub-plot of Gloucester and his sons Is Sir Phillip Kidneys Arcadia which Is the story of a father and his two very different sons. His illegitimate son schemes to gain the other son’s inheritance and blinds his father. The wronged son nurses his father in a storm and reverts him from committing suicide.

The Godfather is a novel written by Mario Buzz, an Italian American author, and was published in 1969 but is set in the 1930-19405. Immigration was present in the asses and with It brought the ‘Mafia’ culture which Inspired Buzz. The Mafia was prominent in big clues such as New York which Is the setting for the novel. The title The Godfather was thought to have been inspired from Pus’s experience as a reporter but the term was first used in connection with the mafia in the 1 963 united States Congressional hearing during

Valise’s testimony. Buzz wrote other novels following similar themes to ;The Godfather’ such as ‘The Fortunate Pilgrim’ which is based on his own mother’s life and known as being very family orientated which is shown in The Godfather as the brothers support and protect one another when the head of the family is incapacitated. This is shown when Sonny’s worried when he can’t reach Michael, “Where you been? I was worried”.

Although Sonny comes across as very masculine and tough, which is a link to the patriarchal society, from the beginning you find he is ere caring when Michael tells Kay the story of how the family adopted Tom after Sonny found him on the streets, “He found Tom Hagen in the street… My father took him in. ” The brothers also insist that Michael stays out of the family business to protect him and when he does become involved send him away to Sicily to avoid being arrested. This contrasts with King Lear as the sisters, especially Reagan and General are only out to help themselves in the ‘love test’ conducted by Lear.

The elder sisters use superlatives to emphasis their love for the king knowing the more they latter him, the bigger portion of the kingdom they will receive. “Sir, I love you more than word can wield the matter… ” . The sisters refer to their father using the proper noun “Sir” showing he is of high status. Learns youngest daughter, Cornelia, refuses to flatter him with lies and instead uses anaphora by repeating the word “nothing” . This reflects the genre of tragedy as the theme of nihilism is often present in tragedies.

Nihilism is the idea that nothing has any lasting value and is also used as a form of resistance. Reagan and General begin to scheme to take all of Learns powers s they are insecure in their positions “Let us hit together” The use of the word ‘hit’ in this declarative has the connotations of forcefulness and violence showing the sisters will go to extremes to get what they want if needed. They later show solidarity when Reagan is taking Learns men, “Why not by the’ hand, Sir? ” . However, General does not fully trust her sister and sends her a letter to ensure she follows the plan saying “Safer than trust too far… ” .

The Curran, who is used as a plot device by Shakespeare to move the plot along, tells Edmund of a rumor about the sisters turning against ACH other, “Have you heard of no likely wars… ” This is foreshadowing the events in Act 4 as the sisters turn against each other while in competition for Edmunds love, “More Convenient is he for my hand than for your lady. ” Sonny and Tom often clash over making decisions for the family but always end up apologizing and know that they will always have each other’s back. “Well you Just do what I tell you to do!… If I had a wartime consigliore… Lam sorry, I didn’t mean that. The Godfather introduced the audience into specific mafia Jargon such as ‘consigliore’ and ‘don’ giving the film an authentic feel. The brothers also protect their sister especially when Carlo is abusing her, “Don’t you ever tell her to shut up. ” General is Jealous of Edmund and Reagan becoming close and says in an aside, “l had rather lose the battle than that sister should loosen him and me. ” This would have outraged the audience as General is focusing on her lust for Edmund rather than the imminent invasion of the French. Her Jealousy grows and she betrays Reagan by poisoning her so she can have Edmund.

Betrayal is also present among siblings in the Godfather when Sonny’s rather-in-law, Carlo, aids in his murder after being refused to help with the family business as the brothers don’t fully regard him as one of the family. As her sickness grows Reagan refers to her health using an exclamation, “Sick, O sick! ” This is responded to with another aside from General, “If not, I’ll newer trust medicine. ” There in unrushed iambic pentameter, known as blank verse, and had to contract words to fit the meter. Reagan uses asides to tell the audience what she is thinking and planning to do.

Asides are short comments but have a similar function to the lousiness used by Edmund. General kills herself when she sees Edmund dying. The dagger she used is smoking, wrist hot, it smokes… She’s dead! ” . The dagger smoking implies that she has the heart of the devil. The subplot in King Lear of Gloucester and his two sons mirrors the main plot but presents the issue of legitimacy. Primogeniture is the law that the first born legitimate child will inherit the parents’ fortunes and was in place until 1925. Edmund knows he’s unable to inherit Gloucester power as he was a ‘bastard child’.

Edmund and Edgar are character foils f each other as they are similar, even in name, but the one that is good will get everything, while the evil one will get nothing. Using a soliloquy Edmund reveals he will frame Edgar for plotting to kill Gloucester, “Edmund the base shall top the’ legitimate. ” Edmund tells Edgar to run away as Gloucester is after him. Edmund then pretends that Edgar harmed him, “Some blood drawn on me would beget opinion of my more fierce endeavourer. ” As a disguise Edgar uses the alias of ‘poor Tom’ a beggar but reminds the audience he is the legitimate son and should act as so, “He chilled as I fathered!

Tom, away! ” When Edmund is accused of treason, he has to battle to prove his innocence and Edgar enters as the ‘champion’. The two brothers fight until Edmund is stabbed and knows he will die. Edmund says he will forgive his killer if he is nobleman and so Edgar reveals his identity, “if tour’s noble, I do forgive thee. ” The use of archaisms such as thou’ and thee’ reflects the time period the play was written in. Overall, Shakespeare displays the family dynamic as explosive whereas Buzz uses the extended family as a source of security and power while being loyal to each other.


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