“Research and Development of Poi Techniques” ABSTRACT The purpose of this report is firstly to provide an insight into the communications medium Voice over IP (Poi) and secondly investigate the problematic areas evolved with the Quality of Service (So) delivered by a Poi system. The report focuses on specific areas such as delay and packet loss and offers hypothesis to why they are created and how they can be minimizes.
The testing is conducted in three stages; the first is a set of subjective tests that have been created for the purpose of this project, to see how a est. candidate’s ability to hear a set of words varies with network load. The second test generates a mean opinion score for different parameters that define the call quality delivered by the Poi system, again with an investigation into they change will network load. The last test measures network statistics such as the delay and packet loss, generated while the Poi system is used for communication.
The results generated from the testing showed that the caller’s ability to hear individual words did not vary with increased network load there was however a certain level of ambiguity regarding these results. The testing also showed that the major factor that affected the So delivered by the Poi system was delay and gave an insight into the amount of delay (seconds) was present in the Poi system. The comparison of how the delay varied with network load showed that there was a directly proportional relationship.
A quantitative result was generated for the amount of audio lost during a 17 minute (1022 seconds) Poi transmission, which was calculated to be 4. 4 seconds. In conclusion hypotheses are drawn regarding the future application of Poi ND factors that might affect its commercial success. CHAPTER 1 : Introduction Voice over IP (Poi) is a technology that has emerged over the last twenty five years. The technology has evolved from the idealistic concept of free phone calls, too a technology that is being used on a global scale as a communication medium.
Poi is becoming a prominent factor in the communications market, not necessarily as a cheaper replacement for the Public Switched Telephone Exchange (EST.) but as a merman of consolidating data communications and supporting new media applications. The supporting of new applications can be seen n the news media’s coverage of the tragic war with Iraq, when remote reporters communicate via an IP videophone, which sends voice and video data through the same communications channel. There are lots of surrounding technologies that work in conjunction with a Poi system.
The concept of implementing Poi and thus exploiting the associated benefits are very attractive in theory and in some cases successful, however there are problems when doing this. Although system vendors are offering Poi solutions, which are being implemented on a corporate basis, Poi is far from being a household technology. Nonce over IP networks are complex. They represent the converging worlds of tell and data communications, and therefore present myriad implementation and testing challenges. (RADIO, 2002) The aim of this project will be to show the failings of a Poi system and thus show how voice data is affected when sent though an IP network. By creating an effective test strategy when transported across an IP network. The testing phase of the project will give an insight into the problematic areas of the technology by applying analytical knowledge to the test results. There will be discussion as to the future of Poi as a ammunitions medium and the factors affecting its inevitable commercial success. CHAPTER 6: Conclusions and Recommendations 6. Conclusion and Recommendations The results from the testing in this project were generated using the maximum resources and capabilities available. The important question that has to be considered is the significance of the results generated. By Just using a sample of twenty people, it could be argued that the results generated were not of a great significance. The results were however given some significance by their correlation with the network statistics gathered. The results of the testing, as predicted, showed that a Poi system is affected by variables such as delay and packet loss.
The degree to which they affected the delivered So was not expected. The testing showed that delay had, by a considerable amount, the greatest effect on the So. When analyzing what created the delay within the system, it was discovered that there were numerous reasons for it. There is definitely more scope for further research into the causes of delay within a Poi system, with the emphasis on solving the problems, not Just identifying them, as there has been already been extensive research in this area. Solving the issue of delay is complex, due to the nature of the problem.
As with many computer or communication systems, delay can be decreased though the use of faster more modern equipment. Removing delay totally from a Poi system is not possible due to the amount of processing required to send voice down a data channel. To engineer Poi systems so delay is minimizes, the individual processing elements such as the CODE need to be researched and developed further. The nature of data transmission using IP will always generate loss of data, the techniques of how this problem is dealt with however need to be fine tuned not necessarily cause they are ineffective by because they also add to the overall delay.
When considering the future of Poi from a commercial aspect there are several factors that are going to affect its success. In the first instance it can argued that the success of video and voice integrated communications is a factor behind the loss of revenue for high-speed transport companies. This is because the highly mobile businessman can now conduct meetings though conferencing calling in a remote location rather than relying on a high-speed transport companies to take him to the meeting directly. Advances in technology will inevitably call for an effective merman of sending voice and video though the same communications channel.
With the on coming trend of 36 technology (Derricks, 2000 ) and Video phones sending voice and data though the same channel will be rudimentary. Work is being carried out into sending Poi over Bluetooth by adaptive ART/UDP/IP header compression, therefore harnessing the benefits of both communication technologies (Martingale, Mass, Vitriol n. D). As a technology that will be used world wide as a home product, such as EST. telephones, Poi or internet telephony is not likely to be successful in the near true as the average user’s connection speeds are Just not capable of handling the real-time full duplex communication needed.
This however will change with the a significant problem. MSP benefits without common industry-accepted methods of providing and controlling communications traffic are unlikely to be realized to the fullest extent possible. Appropriate standards specifications are therefore vital for enabling Poi services on global scale”. (Traverse and Swales, 2001) This problem is being addressed as the technology advances. Already organizations such as The Internet Engineering Task Force (Technical home of ‘P) and International Telecommunication Union, who have started to bring out “testing recommendations” (G. 06 and G. 109) for Poi communication and are striving towards Poi standards When using the Internet as a backbone for Poi transmission and hence utilizing the cost benefits generated, questions arise surrounding the security, reliability of using such a large and public medium. This is a fundamental problem is restricting the success of Poi using the Internet as a backbone. The hypothesis could therefore be put forward of using Van’s with ‘Sec tunneling (ref. Appendix) as the communications backbone.
Van’s harness the benefits of a private network but use a public medium (the Internet). Whether or not the cost of implementing a Van’s is such that it out weights the cost benefits of using a Poi system is not know but would be an interesting area of research. If this hypothesis is also technically feasible it is another area that needs further research. A more detailed look at VPN and Pipes can be seen in Appendix l, up 70. Poi is a massive subject area and subsequently there are other interesting topics that it has not been possible to cover during the reject lifestyle.
This report has tried to identify the problematic areas of the technology whilst offering an insight into the technology itself To conclude, the EST. is technology that was designed for carrying voice traffic, a service it does effectively, it was not designed for the requirements of a modern day society. With the advancing technologies there is a demand for more than Just effective voice communications. Poi is therefore a solution that eventually, with the right supporting technology and fine-tuning not only supply a high So for audio users, UT also support the market demands for convergence of video, data and voice.
The key question has to be asked regarding the user success of Poi at this point in time is; ‘are users willing to sacrifice the benefit of a high So delivered by the EST. in order to maximizes the benefits offered by carrying voice over a data network? Poi for the present will probably only be a technology that will be used in conjunction with the EST. and not replace it, until definite communication standards are set, compatibility issues solved and cross platform communication made possible.