What do you consider the major divisions in Western and non-western societies? What are the major points of connection? Introduction Conversation over Globalization have been overwhelmed the world which mostly separated Into two ways, the Economic and the Cultural. In this essay, I would like to share my views on how the culture differences between the Western and non- Western societies to be regarded under the trend of Globalization. For the sake of convenience, the United States and Britain would be the representatives of the former while the latter would focus on Singapore and Hong Kong.
Major Division “The Clash of Civilizations” (Huntington, 2011) is the major divisions as proposed by many scholars. For the sake of simplifying, I would focus on the Western Civilization In Western societies and Civilization Confucian (or Since) In non-western societies. Under the Liberal Individualist view, the West is rights-based and so emphasizes the rights to non-interference to individuals and so the power of government is limited (Locke & Lasted, 1988). The main objective to set up the government is to provide services to people and so It had to be supervised.
To the Confucian traditions, non- Western societies are paternalistic, accepting hierarchic authority and the community-oriented-characteristics promote order and consensus (Dalton & Eng, 2005). In other words, people are being supervised by the government and unquestioning loyalty Is encouraged. With the tradition of “respect” for authority (also family) and the emphasis on community (over Individual rights), Confucian Civilization seems to be antithetical to liberalism, which the Western advocates. Politician even regarded those Confucian traditions as the roadblock to demutualization.
Pseudo When the majority nod to the statement that different civilizations would finally divide the world into several parts, I see it in another way. Although the West used to have a dominant position, especially after the Cold War; yet, actually concerns over their Internal problems and needs have been on Increasing at that time (Huntington, 2011). On another way, they realized some weak points in their civilization. In case of “Clash of civilization”, is “clash” means a clearly shunt or going to extreme? As a statement made, “a multi-cultural world is unavoidable because global empire Is
Impossible” (Huntington, 2011), there are reasons for me to believe that both two civilizations have desirable places and points of connection. If possible, why don’t we 1 OFF Hong Kong fatal to be an authoritarian regime? Based on the rationale mentioned, I am afraid I could not be the proponent of the thesis of “the Clash of Civilizations”. Major Points of Connection I deem the points connecting the Western and non-western societies are “Modernization”. Modernization is not the same as Westernizes (Huntington, 2011).
Here, I refer to the modernity of non-western Societies (that is Singapore and Hong Kong). These two places are interesting, not only because both of them are Asian societies, but also they had got lessons from the West, earlier than other places in Asia; therefore, it seems to me the modernization is caused by the psychic-cultural consequences of colonial hybrid and “Asian Values” was the outcome. Since Confucian teaching had big influence on many aspects in the East Asia, Former Singapore Prime Minister Lee Guan-Yew popularized the ‘Asian values’ Debate by citing Confucian cultural traditions.
The studies of Asian values links to the ideological articulation of Singapore ruling elite in circumstances of global modernity (Gogh, 2012). Social modernization is possible to transform the traditional social and political norms in order to contribute the growth of individualism in Asia (Dalton & Eng, 2005). Scholar like Theodore De Barry also argues elements of Confucianism can provide a basis for democratic governance (Williamsburg, 1998). Hong Kong has long been influenced under the Western and Confucian civilizations. The former focuses on “rights and duties” while the latter focuses on “responsibility ND duties” (Monnet, n. . ). So the situation in Hong Kong is promoting “responsibility and duties” but we also pursue rights and you could see people started to strive for democracy in recent years ago. Dung Cheek-Haw talked about Asian values and even infiltrated them into administrations. One thing worth to note is politicians who advocates “Asian Values” had never opposed the significance of democracy, Just paid high attention to the progress of it (Change, 1997). In addition to the non-western societies, the Western also have some reflections and clearly their roles got some hangers as compare with the very beginning.
In New York, the legal smoking age had been raised to 21 (CNN, 2013) but people have voting rights at 18. Besides, the American used to have the freedom to keep firearms at home. Since school-shootings keep threatening the life of students and teaching staff in the U. S. , Obama wishes to propose a gun control (Walker, 2013). Though limited grounds here to prove the importance of individualism in the West is fading, nor government have changed it roles to be highly authority-oriented; nevertheless, these are evidence to show the U. S. Trying to strike a new balance point between the collective benefits and freedom of individuals. Moreover, research has been done to prove the acceptance of authority is actually not sharply different between the East Asia and those established Western democracies (Dalton & Eng, 2005). Thus, it sounds reasonable for Fauvism to advance the democratic potential of Confucianism as practical to counterbalance some negative tendencies brought by the individualistic society as exists in some liberal democracies. Conclusion surely differences from the two different Civilizations.
But points of connection come along with the trend of Globalization as the well-known as “Asian Values”. Westerners themselves actually value the terms of “order” and “responsibility’ which the Confucian-based culture always propose (Christopher Patten, 1998). “If there are no any advantages brought by the West, we do not get rid of backwardness. We have a lagging economy and a backward society,” Lee said (Feared Karri, 1994). Clearly, politicians from both sides appreciate to each other. To my point of view, the system of merging the two civilizations into political practices is feasible.